For mental health workers empathy is an essential aspect of good help. This is also a source for compassion fatigue, vicarious traumatization or secondary traumatic stress. Early recognition and awareness are crucial to be resilient to these symptoms.

Awareness of this is important for workers in areas of conflict and disaster, and in extreme environments such as these, people may be more vulnerable to secondary traumatisation. We also know that professionals under this kind of stress may be at risk to perform less efficiently and not perform as they would normally do. Even large organizations that have the resources and knowledge about this particular kind of stress may have reduced capacity to deal with or take care of the affected personnel. As for local helpers, there may often not be any support or resources at all to deal with this. We hope these links will be useful for all persons engaged in this kind of important but heavy work.

The helpers in disaster and catastrophes are trying to solve problems sometimes too overwhelming. They are also just human beings, and although they haven`t went through those catastrophes by themselves, they have to cope with lots of horrible stories and impressions. That of course leaves marks on them, and sometimes they also develop severe psychological problems. Here we have collected a selection of articles high lightening some of these topics.

Compassion Fatigue, Secondary PTSD, Vicarious PTSD, Differences – You tube video 
In this webcast Frank Ochberg explains the differences between Compassion Fatigue, Secondary PTSD, burn out, and Caregiver Burden.

Resources for Survivors and Caregivers
Gift From Within

The organization “Gift from Within” is a non-profit organization, dedicated to help those who suffer of PTSD, and those who care for traumatized individuals. Under this link you find some articles on compassion fatigue and burnout, together with related topics.

Helping the Helpers: Compassion Satisfaction and Compassion Fatigue in Self-Care, Management, and Policy of Suicide Prevention Hotlines
Stamm, 2012
A body of research has emerged in the past decade that shows helpers of all types are at risk for negative consequences of working with highly stressful events. Suicide intervention and prevention potentially expose helpers to extremely stressful events. Being able to helpdirectly or indirectly has both postive and negative aspects which have been described as compassion satisfaction and compassion Fatigue.

When Helping Hurts
Frank Ochberg

This short article (2 p.) presents an overview on the psychological consequences helpers in disaster are suffering of.

The Importance of Helping the Helper
Roger Friedman, in Trauma and Child Welfare, 2002

The article provides with an overview over the problems and psychological consequences helpers are facing, by taking care of clients in very difficult and almost catastrophic situations, with focus on social workers in Child Welfare. –

Being exposed vicariously to traumatic events, for example by listening to catastrophic testimonies, may generate some of the same trauma reactions that would occur if you were involved in a serious incident. You may struggle to manage your emotions, have problems in your relationships, find decision-making difficult, have physical problems (aches and pains, illnesses), feel hopeless, think your life has no meaning, or experience a collapse in self-esteem. 

It is important to develop strategies to cope with situations that might cause vicarious trauma-reactions. What helps you to take your mind off your work or your thoughts? How can you rest your body as well as your mind? Does an activity inspire you or put you in a better mood?

For many local helpers, there may often not be any support or resources at all to deal with this. If possible, meet regularly with other helpers to discuss your experiences and feelings, or do things together and take advantage of the guidelines and tools listed here. 

Guidelines for the prevention and management of vicarious trauma among researchers of sexual and intimate partner violence
Sexual Violence Research Initiative (SVRI) 2015
These guidelines outline recommendations for the prevention of, and response to, vicarious trauma in researchers working in the field of sexual and intimate partner violence but can also be of use and relevance to those researching other sensitive topics including other forms of gender based violence.

The Pan American Health Organization/WHO, Cyralene P. Bryce 2001
This workbook (26 p) describes the SMID concept (Stress Management in Disasters in the Caribbean), a “comprehensive, peer-driven, multi-component stress management program which is administered on a volunteer basis and was designed to prevent and to mitigate the psychological dysfunction which exposure to traumatic situations like disasters may cause in emergency response personnel. The program is based on the principles of crisis intervention and critical incident stress management and it is not intended to take the place of professional therapy”.

Managing Stress – Conversations for Change
UN Cares 2016
A self-help tool designed by UN colleagues to help us in coping with stress and managing change in our ever evolving world and work environments. It is broken into six conversations, with the idea of either working through one chapter at a time (for example, one per week) or choosing the chapters that you think are useful to you, and includes techniques to build self- awareness, relieve and prevent stress, increase effectiveness in relationships and improve money management skills.

Othman, Steel, Lawsin and Wells 2018

International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims. All rights reserved.
Following the programme, staff reported significant reductions in role ambiguity, and improvements in the nature of their work, personal relationships with colleagues and superiors and physical conditions in the workplace. There were no significant differences in reported organisational structure or job satisfaction. This evaluation of a grassroots programme, designed to address the expressed needs of displaced staff, suggests that reductions in daily living stresses can be achieved even in the context of ongoing crisis.

The Pan American Health Organization/WHO, Bryce 2001
This workbook (80 p) is together with the workbook mentioned above, to describe the SMID concept. Both workbooks were designed to provide the basic training material for persons who will provide help for the helpers.

Caring for volunteers
IFRC Psychosocial Centre 2012

A new “Caring for Volunteers, a Psychosocial Support Toolkit,” will help National Societies not only prepare volunteers but also support them during and after disasters, conflicts and other dramatic events. The toolkit contains practical tools for preparing for and handling crises, as well as for peer support and communication. In addition, there is a chapter on how to monitor and evaluate volunteers’ efforts. Some of the tools can be printed out for managers in the field and for volunteers.

Manual on human rights monitoring – trauma and self care 
OHCHR 2001

Vicarious trauma refers to the negative reactions that can occur when hearing about someone else’s traumatic experiences. Human rights defenders and officers are at risk of vicarious trauma when they interview victims of human rights violations and hear stories of their suffering.

Secondary Traumatic Stress 
NCTSN 2011

Each year more than 10 million children in the United States endure the trauma of abuse, violence, natural disasters, and other adverse events. These experiences can give rise to significant emotional and behavioural problems that can profoundly disrupt the children’s lives and bring them in contact with child-serving systems. For therapists, child welfare workers, case managers, and other helping professionals involved in the care of traumatized children and their families, the essential act of listening to trauma stories may take an emotional toll that compromises professional functioning and diminishes quality of life.

Self-Care Assessment Worksheet
Brown University
This assessment tool provides an overview of effective strategies to maintain self-care. After completing the full assessment, choose one item from each area that you will actively work to improve. Another example of post month assessment sheet.

Managing Stress in the Field
IFRC 2009
An IFRC Psychosocial Centre leaflet designed for delegates and field workers before, during and after their mission. Its aim is to help them to recognize, prevent and reduce stress in situations of complex humanitarian disaster.

Online Training Programs
The Headington Institute provides also some other very good online training courses to download/do online.

Managing stress in humanitarian workers
Antares Foundation 2008

The organization provides here with some “guidelines for good practice”, with 8 principles defining how the helpers should be guided and supported.

Professional Quality of Life Elements Theory and Measurement
Stamm et al. 2010
This test provides with material to estimate the impact, the possible burnout or compassion fatigue in the helpers in disaster.

The Concise ProQOL Manual 2012
Stamm, 2012

The background material and statistics in a manual (55 p.) for the ProQOL test mentioned above.

“As with vicarious trauma, awareness is a key factor in vicarious resilience because when we know such an experience exists we are more likely to recognize and benefit from it. Vicarious resilience specifically recognizes the value of observing resilience in our trauma-survivor clients. This is not only noticing positive dimensions of trauma work, although that is important. It’s how bearing witness to our clients’ resilience can change how we are, not just as therapists, but as persons in our own lives, dealing with our own sorrows and challenges.”

David Gangsei, a clinical psychologist who has worked for 30 years in the field of rehabilitation for torture survivors – CVT.org

Vicarious Resilience: A New Concept in Work With Those Who Survive Trauma 
Hernalndez, Gangsei, Engstrøm 2007
This study explores the formulation of a new concept: vicarious resilience. It addresses the question of how psychotherapists who work with survivors of political violence or kidnapping are affected by their clients’ stories of resilience. It focuses on the psychotherapists’ interpretations of their clients’ stories, and how they make sense of the impact that these stories have had on their lives. In semistructured interviews, 12 psychotherapists who work with victims of political violence and kidnapping were interviewed about their perceptions of their clients’ overcoming of adversity. A phenomenological analysis of the transcripts was used to describe the themes that speak about the effects of witnessing how clients cope constructively with adversity. These themes are discussed to advance the concept of vicarious resilience and how it can contribute to sustaining and empowering trauma therapists (pdf,15 pages).

Vicarious Trauma, Vicarious Resilience and Self-Care 
Gangsei
This essay examines the phenomenon of vicarious trauma, its impact on those who work with traumatized clients and the importance of self-care.

Exploring the impact of Trauma on Therapists: Vicarious Resilience and related concepts in training
Hernalndez, Gangsei, Engstrøm 2010
An integrative training framework articulating multiple perspectives on the impact of trauma work is offered with a training/supervision exercise to address the complex and systemic relationships that affect therapists in both positive and negative manners. The concepts of vicarious trauma, vicarious resilience, compassion fatigue, resilience, posttraumatic growth, altruism born of suffering, and reciprocity are reviewed. The paper highlights the importance of vicarious resilience as a dimension of experience that counteracts the normally occurring fatiguing processes that trauma therapists experience.

Vicarious traumatization and vicarious resilience: an exploration of therapists’ experiences conducting individual therapy of refugee clients 
Welsh 2014
The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore clinicians’ experience of vicarious traumatization and/or vicarious resilience in working with refugee clients in order to gain a better understanding of vicarious trauma and the ways in which clinicians are effected by vicarious trauma. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether or not clinicians experience vicarious resilience in working with this client population, and what, if any, impact the vicarious resilience has on the clinician’s treatment modalities, practice style, and personal life.

Vicarious Trauma and Resilience
NetCE 2016
The purpose of this course is to expand health and mental health professionals’ abilities to identify and understand countertransference reactions common in work with trauma survivors, the causes and signs of burnout and compassion fatigue, and factors contributing to vicarious trauma and resilience.

Green Cross
The Green Cross is an international, humanitarian assistance organization, non-profit corporation comprised of trained traumatologists and compassion fatigue service providers. The organization is oriented to helping people in crisis following traumatic events.

Gift from Within
The organization “Gift from Within” is an online, non-profit organization, dedicated to help those who suffer of PTSD, and those who care for traumatized individuals. Founded by a non-clinician, supported and carried also by clinicians.

Centre for Humanitarian Psychology
Via training and information targets this organization to stabilize psychosocial skills for “more efficient aid workers”. Some information is free, some (f.e. e-learning) has to be purchased.

Headington Institute
This institute was established in 2001, it provides a collaborative network of mental health professionals offering a variety of services to humanitarian workers. The aim is to provide psychological and spiritual support for humanitarian relief and development workers worldwide. It offers training programs/also e-learning, counseling, debriefing etc.

Antares Foundation
This is a non-profit organization, its mission is to improve the quality of management and staff support and care in humanitarian and developmental organizations.

Professional Quality of Life
This website gives some overview and help in case of compassion fatigue, burnout and related topics. Created by dedicated people working as psychologists, historians and in other fields.

The Mental Health & Psychosocial Network
MHPSS Network is a growing global platform for connecting people, networks and organizations, for sharing resources and for building knowledge related to mental health and psychosocial support both in emergency settings and in situations of chronic hardship

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Based on the tags: post-traumatic stress disorder stress trauma treatment

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