LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL AND TRANSSEXUAL (LGBT) RIGHTS

The Universal Declaration of Human rights states in Article 2: "Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status" This article is an important reminder of the absolute right not to be discriminated on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.

To follow up on the human rights perspective in relation to this, we have added this thematic page on LGBT rights where we have collected publications on UN resolutions and documents, articles regarding LGBT and mental health and organizations that are working with LGBT issues. We would very much appreciate feedback, comments and suggestions on relevant publications to add to this page.

LGBT Rights and international resolutions and legal documents
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender and Mental Health issues
Violations of LGBT Human rights
Guidelines and manuals
Organisations and sites that provide information about and deal with LGBT rights

LGBT Rights and international resolutions and legal documents

Lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender (LGBT) persons are vulnerable to a range of human rights violations, including homophobic violence, killings, rape, arbitrary detention and widespread discrimination in the workplace and in access to basic services like housing and healthcare. In more than 70 countries, laws make it a crime to be homosexual, exposing millions to the risk of arrest, imprisonment and, in some cases, execution. The UN Secretary-General, the High Commissioner for Human Rights and heads of various UN agencies have all spoken out—calling for the worldwide decriminalization of homosexuality and further measures to protect people from violence and discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

  • Resolusjon 17/19 Human rights, sexual orientation and gender identity
    Expressing grave concern at acts of violence and discrimination, in all regions of the world, committed against individuals because of their sexual orientation and gender identity. Conducting a study, documenting discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, in all regions of the world, and how international human rights law can be used to end violence and related human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity.
  • Human Rights Council panel on ending violence and discrimination against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, summary.
    The High Commissioner’s study had documented disturbing abuses in all regions – including widespread bias in workplaces, schools and hospitals, imprisonment, torture, physical assaults and killings. It was called upon the Human Rights Council to respond effectively and on States to tackle homophobic violence, decriminalize consensual same-sex relationships, ban discrimination, and educate the public. Regular reporting was also needed to verify that violations are genuinely being addressed.
  • Discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, full report
    The present report is submitted to the Human Rights Council pursuant to its resolution 17/19, in which the Council requested the United Nations High Commissioner for uman rights to commission a study documenting discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, and how international human rights law can be used to end violence and related human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity. UN 2011
  • Tackling discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity
    The UN human rights treaty bodies, whose role it is to monitor compliance by States parties with their obligations under international human rights treaties, have consistently held that States have an obligation under existing treaty provisions to protect people from violence and discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation.
  • Sexual Orientation and Human Rights
    Sexual orientation is a relatively recent notion in human rights law and practice and one of the controversial ones in politics. Prejudices, negative stereotypes and discrimination are deeply imbedded in our value system and patterns of behaviour. For many public officials and opinion-makers the expression of homophobic prejudice remains both legitimate and respectable - in a manner that would be unacceptable for any other minority.
  • Not an illness nor a crime’ lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in Turkey demand equality
    On 25 June 2010 thousands of people – among them lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) men and women, members of their families, activists and other supporters marched through the centre of Istanbul in the greatest show of solidarity for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people ever seen in Turkey to date. The show of support in 2010 and a similar event planned for 2011 take place against the background of continuing violence and systematic harassment and discrimination by the state authorities against members of the LGBT community in Turkey. Amnesty International 2011
  • Are LGBT rights human rights? Recent developments at the United Nations
    With the increased global media attention on violent acts of persecution inflicted on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender (LGBT) persons, a crucial question before the world community today is whether gay rights are included under our basic human rights. At the United Nations, this question is slowly taking center stage, but it is not at all clear what the U.N. deliberations will yield from the linkage between gay rights and human rights. Foundational U.N. documents appear to provide guidance. American Psychological Association
  • Gender-based violence against the transgender community is underreported
    The Transgender Day of Remembrance on Nov. 20, 2011 is important opportunity to address the serious but often-ignored issue of gender-based violence (GBV) against transgender persons. The status of the transgender population has important implications for the progress toward gender equality and other human rights.
  • Reflections and thoughts on the Passing of the follow up Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity [SOGI] at the UNHCR
    CAL Director, Dawn Cavanagh, shared some thoughts with AWID [Association for Women’s Rights in Development] FRIDAY FILE about the process, and substance behind the recent passing of the follow up Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity at 27th Session of the United Nation’s Human Right Council
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Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health

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Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender and Mental Health issues

  • Using the Minority Stress Model to Understand Depression in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals in Nebraska
    Molly A. McCarthy Christopher M. Fisher Jay A. Irwin, Jason D. Coleman & Aja D. Kneip Pelster Previous studies demonstrated the utility of the minority stress model in understanding health disparities for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. Since most research has considered large metropolitan areas, predominantly in coastal regions of the United States, this research focuses on a midwestern state, Nebraska. This study sought to assess the relationships between depressive symptoms experienced by participants (N = 770) and minority stress variables, including experiences with violence, perceptions of discrimination, and respondents’ degree of self-acceptance of their LGBT identity. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling for demographic variables, self-acceptance, and perceived discrimination were correlated with depressive symptoms. These findings have implications for policy makers, public health planners, and health care providers. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health 2014.
  • Gay and Bisexual Men's Health
    Homosexuality is not a mental disorder, but homophobia, stigma, and discrimination have negative effects on the health of MSM, lesbians, and other sexual minorities. The negative effects of social marginalization can be found in adolescent and adult MSM, for example, research has shown that MSM and other members of the LGBT community are at increased risk for a number of mental health problems. CDC.
  • Higher Risk of Mental Health Problems for Homosexuals
    Higher risk of mental health problems due to discrimination - This “lends support to the idea that people who feel discriminated against experience social stressors, which in turn increases their risk of experiencing mental health problems.”
  • New data on lesbian, gay and bisexual mental health APA
    Tori deAngelis 2002 In a study that examines possible root causes of mental disorders in LGB people, Cochran and psychologist Vickie M. Mays, PhD, of the University of California, Los Angeles, explored whether ongoing discrimination fuels anxiety, depression and other stress-related mental health problems among LGB people. The authors found strong evidence of a relationship between the two.
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Violations of LGBT Human rights

In this chapter we try to collect some articles which are highlighting some aspects LGBT rights violations.

  • Armed conflict, homonegativity, and forced internal displacement: Implications for HIV among Colombian gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals.
    Zea et al. 2013 .Colombia has endured six decades of civil unrest, population displacement, and violence. We examined the relationships of contextual conditions, displacement, and HIV among gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in Bogotá, Colombia. Nineteen key informants provided information about internal displacement of sexual minorities
  • Human Rights Watch - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights
    In June 2013 President Putin signed a law allowing police officers to arrest tourists and foreign nationals they suspect of being homosexual, lesbian or “pro-gay” and detain them for up to 14 days. The law could mean that any Olympic athlete, trainer, reporter, family member or fan who is gay — or suspected of being gay, or just accused of being gay — can go to jail.
  • Russia’s Anti-Gay Crackdown
    In June 2013 President Putin signed a law allowing police officers to arrest tourists and foreign nationals they suspect of being homosexual, lesbian or “pro-gay” and detain them for up to 14 days. The law could mean that any Olympic athlete, trainer, reporter, family member or fan who is gay — or suspected of being gay, or just accused of being gay — can go to jail.
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Guidelines and manuals

  • Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Community a Field Guide
    The role of effective communication and patient-centeredness in providing safe and high-quality health care to diverse patient populations is well accepted. Effective patient–provider communication has been linked to an increase in patient satisfaction, better adherence to treatment recommendations, and improved health outcomes. Patient-centered care “encompasses qualities of compassion, empathy, and responsiveness to the needs, values, and expressed preferences of the individual patient.”2 (p.48) Combining the elements of effective communication and patient-centeredness into care delivery has been shown to improve patients’ health and health care. The California endowment
  • For many, gender orientation may be related to serious and painful events, for some even traumatic experiences with the consequences known from the trauma field in general In our search for good links we found limited information regarding psychological trauma in persons with LGBT background due to stigma and persecution. But we would nevertheless take the opportunity to refer to our recently published manual about GBV where outline of what is trauma, what are trauma reactions and how to deal with them are outlined and described rather concretely. Our manual is freely available from our website.
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Organisations and sites that provide information about and deal with LGBT rights

  • Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide"
    (TvT) is a comparative, ongoing qualitative-quantitative research project conducted by Transgender Europe. The project provides an overview of the human rights situation of trans persons in different parts of the world and develops useful data and advocacy tools for international institutions, human rights organizations, the trans movement and the general public.
  • The online platform for Taylor & Francis Group content Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health
  • The Coalition of African Lesbians [CAL]
    is a formation of more than 30 organisations in 19 countries in Africa committed to advancing justice for lesbian and bisexual women and transdiverse people.
  • Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists (AGLP)
    AGLP traces its roots to the late 1960s when gay and lesbian members of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) met secretly at the annual meetings. In 1973 the APA removed homosexuality from the diagnostic manual (DSM) allowing a more open association of lesbian and gay psychiatrists, who no longer had to fear for their jobs if they were found out to be gay. Even today, the mission of providing support and a safe space for LGBT psychiatrists to meet continues to be important to many of our members.
  • The Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues (SPSLGBTI)
    The pages in this section contain links to documents, websites, and other resources related to LGBT psychology that are consistent with the mission of Div. 44. These links are provided as resources for our members and visitors to this site. Please note that Div. 44 is not responsible for the content or opinions expressed on other websites or within the linked documents.
  • APA dicvision 44 websites
    With extensive lists of information
  • Sexual Minorities Uganda (SMUG)
    Is an umbrella non-governmental organization based in Kampala, Uganda. SMUG advocates for the protection and promotion of human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender Ugandans.
  • The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH)
    A non-profit, interdisciplinary professional and educational organization devoted to transgender health. Our professional, supporting, and student members engage in clinical and academic research to develop evidence-based medicine and strive to promote a high quality of care for transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming individuals internationally.
  • Immigration Equality
    Since 1994, Immigration Equality has been proud to support and represent lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and HIV-positive immigrants seeking safety, fair treatment, and freedom.
  • This website was created by the LGBT Issues Committee of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) to teach psychiatry residents about caring for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex patients. However, we hope it will also be useful to all health and mental health trainees and practitioners.
  • LGBT mental health syllabus
    This website was created by the LGBT Issues Committee of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) to teach psychiatry residents about caring for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex patients. However, we hope it will also be useful to all health and mental health trainees and practitioners.
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