Selected links on Gender Based Violence

In 1993, the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women offered the first official definition of the term “Gender-based Violence”: “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” Gender-based violence has become an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person’s will, and that results from power inequalities that are based on gender roles. Around the world, gender-based violence almost always has a greater negative impact on women and girls. For this reason the term "Gender-based Violence" is often used interchangeably with the term "Violence against Women" (VAW). GBV principally affects those across all cultures. GBV can occur throughout a woman's lifecycle, and can include everything from early childhood marriage and genital mutilation, to sexual abuse, domestic violence, legal discrimination and exploitation. In what way should we meet women who have been victims of gender-based violence? It is extremely important to meet women who have been victims of gender-based violence in a respectful and dignified manner. Below we have collected some useful links about GBV:

Definitions and basic terms to Gender Based Violence
Guidelines and Tools
Human rights and Gender Based Violence - law, legal texts, resolutions etc
Gender Based Violence in the context of war and conflict
Male GBV as a weapon of war
Engaging men
Female Genital Mutilation
Human Trafficking
Organisations and sites

Definitions and basic terms to Gender Based Violence

This presents a collection of articles, websites etc. You’ll find a wide choice of more general documents - statements and definitions of the WHO or UN, as well as more specific ones addressing f.ex the situation in some countries. Some cover Gender-based Violence all over, also included is domestic violence against women (occurring all over the globe, also in “peaceful” countries). Some are more specific concerning GBV in the context of war or conflict.

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Guidelines and Tools

This represents a collection of manuals and guidelines, which try from different points of view to help field workers to cope with the aftermath of GBV, the traumas and injuries of the survivors. Very often the focus here is aimed at situations during or after war/conflict. Therefore most of these manuals are targeting more practical aspects of fieldwork, as for instance organizing a field camp. Some provide a lot of information about GBV. Some try also to set focus on communication with the survivors, as the topic GBV is a very sensitive one and therefore sometimes difficult to approach in contact with the survivor. The effects of GBV are manifold and always severe. There are physical injuries that may remain, as chronic pain syndromes, muscle and skeleton damages, infections, sexually transmitted diseases. In the recent years it has come more in focus that also the psychological effects are severe, sometimes more serious than the physical ones. To name here PTSD (post traumatic stress disease) in all its varieties, depression, panic disorders.

  • Mental health and gender-based violence Helping survivors of sexual violence in conflict – a training manual
    HHRI 2014, revised in 2016 - This training manual has been developed for helpers who provide assistance and support to women who survive gender-based violence (GBV) and sexual trauma during disasters, conflicts and emergency situations, where access to health professionals with psychological or psychiatric expertise is limited. It is also avalable in Arabic, Russian and Spanish versions. If you would like a hard copy, we will send it to you free of charge. Please send us an e-mail explaining what kind of work you are doing and how you can use it for your work.
  • We will also like to introduce you to our Gender based violence manual – website. This website is concentrated on our manual "Mental health and gender-based violence Helping survivors of sexual violence in conflict – a training manual”. On this web site, you can download the manual and have a closer look at the pilots –trainings that we organized prior to the completion of the manual. We have edited the Butterfly- woman story into one continuous story, as well presented the other tools, such as the grounding exercises, the helping the helpers part and ideas as to how you can conduct training in your context.

    We have also made a small toolbox - boklet where we have gathered all the tools in the manual, easy to translate into yur own language to make it easier to hold your own trainings. This website is also translated to Spanish. If you are interested in organizing training at your workplace, in your organization or other relevant contexts, please send us an e-mail and we will provide you with more information and advice.

  • IASC Guidelines for Gender- based Violence interventions in humanitarian settings
    Guidelines (334 p.) with focus on practical aspects and approach ( f.e. shelter, security, food). Nothing in specific about mental health. - “Prevention of and response to sexual violence in emergencies” The GBV Guidelines have been revised from the 2005 version by an inter-agency Task Team led by UNICEF and UNFPA, and endorsed by the IASC in 2015
  • Training package for health care professionals on strengthening health system responses to gender-based violence
    The training package aims to strengthen the knowledge and skills of health care professionals to understand GBV, to identify patients who have experienced GBV and to provide survivors with appropriate care, support and referrals. It seeks to provide trainers with a ready-made and user-friendly tool to deliver trainings to health care professionals in the EECA region, packaging the comprehensive background information included in part I into ten practical training modules. UNFPA & WAVE 2014
  • SGBV Prevention and Response
    The Training Package is designed to help facilitators deliver introductory, interactive training on the prevention of and response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Facilitators should have field-experience working on SGBV prevention and response, mainstreaming gender equality, working with communities affected by displacement, and be familiar with UNHCR’s approach to addressing SGBV. -UNHCR 2016
  • Mental health and psychosocial support for conflict-related sexual violence: principles and interventions1
    This is a summary of the report from a meeting on Responding to the psychosocial and mental health needs of sexual violence survivors in conflict-affected settings, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), with United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), on behalf of United Nations Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict (UNAction), on 28–30 November 2011 in Ferney-Voltaire, France.
  • A practical approach to gender based violence – a programme guide for health care providers & managers
    Manual (74 p.) which tries to provide health care providers with the necessary information about GBV. This manual has some focus on how to approach a difficult topic to talk about, as GBV represents for most of the survivors, in a psychological way. It tries to arouse sensibility and improved interviewing skills. - UN Population Fund 2001
  • Guidance for mediators: Addressing conflict-related sexual violence in ceasefire and peace agreements
    This guidance offers advice to aid the mediator and his/her team in addressing a frequently used method and tactic of warfare: conflict-related sexual violence. It provides strategies for including this security and peace building concern within ceasefire and security arrangements and in framing provisions for post-conflict justice and reparations. -UN Department of Political Affairs 2012
  • Handbook for Coordinating GBV interventions in humanitarian settings
    A quick-reference tool that provides practical guidance on leadership roles, key responsibilities and specific actions to be taken when establishing and maintaining a GBV coordination mechanism in an emergency. The handbook is based on the IASC Guidelines for GBV- Interventions in Humanitarian Settings (2005) and also takes into account lessons learned, good practices and emerging resources related to GBV coordination within the cluster approach/humanitarian reform process as well as relatively recent global initiatives on GBV in emergencies. Gender-based Violence Area of Responsibility Working Group (2010, 348 p.).
  • Gender-based Violence Tools Manual
    This manual (207 p.) tries to cover most of administrative and organizational considerations required to establish help. Lots of form-sheets useful to organize help practically. Form-sheets for structured interviews etc. “For Assessment & Program Design, Monitoring & Evaluation in conflict-affected settings” RHRC 2004
  • Facilitator's Guide - Training Manual for Multisectoral and Interagency Prevention and Response to Gender-based Violence
    This manual includes and provides information and (interactive) training to create workshops and seminars, for planning interventions to address GBV in displaced settings around the world. Most focus on administrative and practical issues, some information about mental (psychological) damage after GBV. - RHRC 2004
  • Camp management toolkit
    Most of the topics in the Camp Management Toolkit are interconnected and have relevance for and explicit links to other sectors and chapters. Such topics as GBV, protection, participation and community involvement, information management and environment are cross-cutting in nature and their messages are integral to the Toolkit as a whole, chapter 10, tries to cover most under practical aspects the challenge to focus on GBV, with basic examples. Nothing specific about mental health. Norwegian Refugee Council 2008, 598 pages.
  • Clinical management of rape survivors
    Guidelines how to approach survivors of GBV, clinical management on basic level (“how to examine..”). - UNHCR 2004
  • Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons
    Guidelines with an overview over the topic GBV, with some considerations about prevention and response. - UNHCR 2003
  • Mental health of refugees
    Manual (96 p.)to help those who work with refugees/displaced persons. Here is the focus on to enable the helpers themselves to cope with the traumas of the survivors, and to raise skills in approaching the mental health problems. 10 units, suitable to set up workshops. Very useful. - UNHCR/WHO 1996
  • Checklist for Action - Prevention & Response to Gender-Based Violence in Displaced Settings
    RHRC 2004
    Short checklist approaching mainly practical considerations how to cope with the aftermath of GBV and the survivors.
  • Researcher Trauma, Safety and Sexual Violence Research
    Briefing paper- Working and researching with victims of sexual violence can be traumatic to the researcher and can result in secondary traumatic stress or vicarious traumatisation. This paper explores the experiences of sexual violence researchers from different countries, identifying the issues that traumatized them and the protective strategies they found effective. - SVRI 2010
  • Communication skills in working with survivors of GBV/workshop
    A 5-day-training in communication/Trainers Workshop (194 p.). Enables participants to emphasize better in communication with survivors, and make them capable to organize a setting that takes care both of the survivor and the field-worker. Can be used to set up a workshop with examples of form-sheets, info-leaflets and hand-outs.
  • Sexual and Gender-based Violence - Overview
    A field manual on reproductive health in refugee situations, which provides with considerations and advice concerning prevention, responding, monitoring. - UNFPA
  • Guidelines for medico-legal care for victims of sexual violence
    Solid manual (154 p.) which provides with knowledge about GBV and mostly focuses on necessary settings, but strongly practical (f.e. how to physically examine, about documentation, poorly focus on counseling). - WHO 2003
  • Trauma Treatment Manual
    A guide in text-form to raise understanding for the topic GBV and trauma, and improve communication-skills for field workers helping trauma-survivors, communication examples for approach. - Ed Schmookler PhD, 2001
  • Preventing Gender-based Violence, Building Livelihoods Guidance and Tools for Improved Programming
    New livelihood strategies can increase the risk of gender-based violence (GBV). Women often have no safety net; they usually flee with few resources and little preparation and may become separated from or lose family members. A lack of access to economic opportunities while displaced often forces women and girls to resort to harmful measures to survive. Women’s Refugee Commission 2011
  • Managing Gender-based Violence Programmes in Emergencies e-learning course.
    Developed by the UNFPA and World Education, Inc., in consultation with a wide range of GBV experts and humanitarian and development actors worldwide, the goal of this course is to improve the knowledge of programme managers to better address the issue of gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies. 2011
  • Clinical Care for Sexual Assault Survivors A Multimedia Training Tool Facilitator’s Guide
    International Rescue Committee with production by the UCLA Center for International Medicine 2008
    The goal of this multimedia educational program is to improve clinical care for and general treatment of sexual assault survivors by providing medical instruction and encouraging competent, compassionate, confidential care. The program is intended for both clinical care providers and non-clinician health facility staff. It is designed to be delivered in a group setting with facilitators guiding participants through the material and directing discussions and group participation as appropriate.
  • Passing the test. The experience of Liberian school students.
    Judy L. Postmus and Rebecca Davis, 2014
    Gender Based Violence (GBV) in and around schools is now widely recognized as a serious global phenomenon that is a fundamental violation of human rights and a major barrier to the realization of all children’s rights to education.
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Human rights and Gender Based Violence - law, legal texts, resolutions etc

Here we try to present a collection of legal framework, which already exist. Especially The United Nations agreement on some resolutions, which define the topic in a very solid mode, including suggestions on how to proceed. Implementing these resolutions and agreements in the reality of war-situations and preventing GBV from happening is the issue that is to be focused on. In response to persistent advocacy from civil society the UN Security Council has so far, adopted five resolutions on "Women, Peace and Security". These resolutions are: Security Councils Resolution 1325 (2000); 1820 (2009); 1888 (2009); 1889 (2010) 1960 (2011) 2106 (2013); 2122 (2013) and 2242 (2015). The eight resolutions should be taken together under a single umbrella, as they comprise the Women, Peace and Security international policy framework. They guide work to promote and protect the rights of women in conflict and post-conflict situations. Additionally, as binding Security Council resolutions, they should be implemented by all Member States and relevant actors, including UN system entities and parties to conflict.

  • Women, Peace and Security international policy framework - the resolutions
    UN Security Council Resolutions, with overview and insight to each of the eight resolutions, useful to check the "speak local" links - Peace Women
  • UN-Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security
    Essential and fundamental UN-resolution about that topic – “impact of armed conflict on women and girls”, with proposals how to realize targets. - UN 2000
  • Strengthening the protection of Women from Torture
    UNHCR, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture and other cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment, A/HRC/7/3, 15 January 2008. The term “torture” seen in connection with “violence against women”, and some conclusions to be drawn international, with implications on justice, reparation, other (human) rights.
  • Indicators on Violence Against Women and State Response
    Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences / Human Rights Council, 2008
  • Women’s Rights are Human Rights
    This publication provides an introduction to women’s human rights, beginning with the main provisions in international human rights law and going on to explain particularly relevant concepts for fully understanding women’s human rights. UN 2014
  • Nairobi declaration on women`s and girl`s right to a remedy and reparation
    Conclusion/declaration as a result of an international meeting on “Women’s and Girls’ Right to a Remedy and Reparation”, held in Nairobi from 19 to 21 March 2007. Participants have been women’s rights advocates and activists, as well as survivors of sexual violence in situations of conflict, from Africa, Asia, Europe, Central, North and South America. Here`s the focus on remedy and reparation for the survivors of GBV. - Nairobi 2007
  • Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women
    A declaration elaborated as a result after an international meeting on the topic about “violence against women”. An attempt to define women`s rights, duties of the states, etc. - Belèm/Brazil, 1995
  • Sustainable Development Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
    Gender-based violence seen in different contexts, with the goal to present some of the most important topics: in combination with poverty, reproductive health, HIV, in conflict situations. Issues and challenges with all these topics. - UN Women, 2017
  • Gender based violence and the law
    Jeni Klugman, Georgetown University, World Development Report 2017
    The Sustainable Development Goals include a specific target to “eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres.” A recent special series of The Lancet on addressing violence against women provides an excellent overview of the current evidence, and highlights that while growing international recognition creates opportunities for renewed government commitment, solutions will not be quick or easy.
  • Thematic Prosecution of International Sex Crimes
    FICHL, Morten Bergsmo ed. 2012
    Deals with the topic of thematic prosecution of core international crimes. Its focus is on international sex crimes. It is important to justify the singling out of a narrow range of criminality for prosecution, whether in internationalized or national criminal jurisdictions. Thematic prosecutions should be explained to the public. Absent proper justification, the thematic prosecution of core international crimes is likely to generate increasing controversy. This timely publication will hopefully raise awareness and generate discussion about the possibilities and challenges of the use of thematic prosecution among those working in criminal justice agencies, academia, civil society, and the media (474 pages).
  • Changing the Criminal Justice System’s Response to Sexual Assault/Gender Based Violence in Canada
    ISP EMPLOYMENT LAW, Jennifer Canas 2017
    Trauma Informed Sexual Assault Investigation and Adjudication Training. Justice, for survivors of sexual assault/gender based violence, demands that Trauma-Informed Sexual Assault training and education about the impact of trauma on the brain, complexities and dynamics underlying a survivor’s response to such assault, the myths and stereotypes of sexual assault, and including investigative/questioning skills be provided within the whole of the criminal justice system across Canada, otherwise we will continue to see justice denied.
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Gender Based Violence in the context of war and conflict

There are many articles covering the topic of GBV in a more general meaning, here also including domestic violence (occurring also in “stabile” countries). We are trying here to collect some essays and articles, which are highlighting the specific problems concerning GBV in war and conflict zones

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Male GBV as a weapon of war

  • Male victims of sexual violence: war's silent sufferers
    Allan Ngari, Institute for Security Studies (ISS). 2016
    Sexual violence is a tactic of war, used to humiliate, dominate and instill fear. It is also increasingly being used as a tactic of terrorism. While the focus has largely been on women and girls as victims of sexual violence, boys and men are equally at risk. Sexual violence against men and boys takes on a range of heinous acts, including anal and oral rape, genital torture, castration and coercion to rape others. Many of these acts are seen as emasculating, and while many male victims are willing to give accounts of what they witnessed, they are less likely to express what they themselves had experienced in conflict.

  • Identifying and Responding to Urban Refugees’ Risks of Gender-Based Violence Men and Boys, Including Male Survivors
    Women´s Refugee Commission (WRC). 2016
    Throughout 2015, WRC conducted a research in urban settings, the first phase of a multi-year project to improve the humanitarian community’s understanding of and response to GBV risks in urban contexts. Quito, Ecuador; Beirut, Lebanon; Kampala, Uganda; and Delhi, India, were chosen because they are host to diverse refugee populations, have different policy environments for refugees, and are at different stages of humanitarian response. The project looked separately at the GBV risks of different urban refugee subpopulations: women; children and adolescents; LGBTI individuals; persons with disabilities; and male survivors of sexual violence.

  • “We keep it in our heart” Sexual violence against men and boys in the Syria crisis.
    Dr. Sarah Chynoweth, UNHCR 2017
    This exploratory study examined sexual violence against men and boys in the Syria crisis and their access to services in Jordan, Lebanon, and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). In addition to a review of the literature and an online survey completed by 33 key informants, in-country data collection was undertaken in October 2016. Key informant interviews with 73 humanitarian personnel from 34 agencies were conducted as well as 21 focus group discussions with 196 refugees (82 pages).

  • Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse
    Christopher Anderson, American Psychological Association. 2015
    Common Types of and Prevalence Estimates for Exposure to Traumatic Stressors. Within the U.S. as many as 1 in 4 males will experience some form of sexual abuse during their lifetime. The number of males who are sexually abused during military service is greater than the number of female service members. As many as 50% of the children who are sex trafficked in the US are males.

  • Male Rape Victims in the Lord’s Resistance Army war and the Conflict in Eastern Congo
    Linda Lanyero Omona, International Institute for Social Studies. December, 2014
    Sexual violence against men in Uganda is an underreported crime. Sexual violence against men is considered a taboo in most cultures. It is an issue not talked about because many consider the rape of men nearly impossible. It is clear that men have also been victims of rape in armed conflicts all over the world. The laws that define rape should be revised to include men and boys as victims of rape.

  • Working with men and boy survivors of sexual and gender-based violence in forced displacement
    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 2012
    Refugee men and boys can be subjected to sexual and gender based violence (SGBV). Survivors have specific health, psychosocial, legal, and safety needs, but often find it hard to discuss their experience and access the support they need. The objectives of this note are to emphasise that programmes on SGBV need to include men and boys, and to provide guidance on how to access survivors, facilitate reporting, provide protection and deliver essential medical, legal and social services.

  • International Human Rights Law and Sexual Violence Against Men in Conflict Zones
    Tom Hennessey and Felicity Gerry, Halsbury´s Law Exchange.
    Sexual violence occurs in times of peace and of war. It takes place within committed relationships and between strangers, between people of any gender and sexuality, and for reasons that can be complex. However, despite common misconceptions, it is widely accepted amongst academics and charities that rape and other forms of sexual offences are usually about dominance and control rather than sexual gratification; a form of physical violence that has the power to fundamentally undermine the victim’s confidence and self-identity. Because of this, sexual violence is a common feature of war zones. As armies or militias struggle to assert their dominance, civilians within contested areas often find themselves subjected to widespread sexual abuse. The result is fear, humiliation and trauma.

  • Working with men and boys survivors of sexual and gender-based violence in forced displacement
    UNCHR, 2012
    Refugee men and boys can be subjected to sexual and gender based violence (SGBV). Survivors have specific health, psychosocial, legal, and safety needs, but often find it hard to discuss their experience and access the support they need. It is important that UNHCR and its partners take steps to address these difficulties. The objectives of this note are to emphasise that programmes on sexual and gender based violence need to include men and boys, and to provide guidance on how to access survivors, facilitate reporting, provide protection and deliver essential medical, legal and social services.

  • In some refugee groups, more than one in three men are said to have suffered sexual violence
    Katie, Nguyen, Thomson Reuters Foundation. May, 2014
    Sexual violence against men is one of the least told aspects of war. Yet men and boys are victims too of abuse that is frequently more effective at destroying lives and tearing communities apart than guns alone. It can take the form of anal and oral rape, genital torture, castration, gang rape, sexual slavery and the forced rape of others. It is so taboo that few survivors have the courage to tell their story. Besides feeling ashamed and afraid of being ostracised, many victims dare not challenge powerful myths about male rape in their cultures, experts say. A common belief is that a man who is raped becomes a woman.

  • Hope in the Shadows: Male Victims of Sexual Assault in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Miya Cain, Harvard Kennedy School. 2014
    As a result of ongoing conflict, poverty and instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congolese men and women have been subjected to various forms of sexual violence by warring rebel militia, government forces, and noncombatants. Most humanitarian aid, money, and international attention supports female victims of sexual violence, but male victims are largely left in the shadows. Simplified narratives of gender violence often define men as “villains” and women as “victims.” This narrative aligns with traditional conceptions of gender roles; however, the oversimplification often leaves male victims overlooked by policy responses designed to address sexual violence.

  • UNHCR issues guidelines on protection of male rape victims
    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). October, 2012
    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against men and boys has generally been mentioned as a footnote in reports. There are no detailed statistics on the number of male victims of SGBV but, the phenomenon is increasingly being recognized as a protection concern in conflict and forced displacement situations. Despite the prevailing taboo, there had been progress over the last decade in reporting of incidents.

  • Access to Justice for Male Victims of Sexual Violence; Focus on Refugees in Uganda
    Meg McMahon, Legal Aid Board.
    Sexual violence against men has garnered increasing publicity in recent years[2] but still remains extremely under-researched and under-reported. This paper will examine the challenges facing male victims of sexual violence. The paper will look at the broad international framework, including definitions of sexual violence and international jurisprudence in the area as well as generally looking at how the term sexual or gender based violence has come to be associated with violence against women.

  • The rape of men: the darkest secret of war
    Will Storr, The Guardian. July 2011
    Sexual violence is one of the most horrific weapons of war, an instrument of terror used against women. Yet huge numbers of men are also victims. In this harrowing report, Will Storr travels to Uganda to meet traumatised survivors, and reveals how male rape is endemic in many of the world's conflicts. Of all the secrets of war, there is one that is so well kept that it exists mostly as a rumour. It is usually denied by the perpetrator and his victim. Governments, aid agencies and human rights defenders at the UN barely acknowledge its possibility.

  • Male Rape and Human Rights
    Lara Stemple, Program for the Study of Sexuality, Gender, Health and Human Rights, Columbia University. 2009
    For the last few decades, the prevailing approach to sexual violence in international human rights instruments has focused virtually exclusively on the abuse of women and girls. In the meantime, men have been abused and sexually humiliated during situations of armed conflict. Childhood sexual abuse of boys is alarmingly common.

  • Masculinity and Experiences of Sexual Violence: Case study of Male Congolese Refugees in Kampala Uganda
    Jacqueline Mukasa Nassaka ISS 2012.
    Uganda, as any other countries receives refugees yearly from its neighbours. Among the issues reported occasionally are incidences related to sexual violence. These issues are generally ignored without taking into consideration the different aspects of sustainable development.

Engaging men

Gender equality cannot be achieved without the involvement of men and boys. But change is slowly taking place, and men are increasingly working alongside women to support gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.

  • Engaging Boys and Men in GBV Prevention and Reproductive Health in Conflict and Emergency-Response Settings
    A Workshop Module The ACQUIRE Project, USAID This module is for personnel working in conflict and other emergency-response settings who are interested in engaging boys and men in gender-based violence prevention and reproductive health. This includes those managing or staffing reproductive health, HIV and AIDS, and/or GBV prevention projects in emergency-response settings or conflict zones. Specific audiences to consider targeting are NGO project managers, field staff, health sector coordinators, health promoters, donor representatives, local representatives of ministries of health, and community liaisons working for UNCHR or other U.N. agencies (pdf. 60 pages).
  • Partnering with men to end gender-based violence practices that work from Eastern Europe and Central Asia
    UNFPA - This publication is about five UNFPA-supported projects in South and Eastern Europe that have made monumental strides in engaging men in the prevention of gender-based violence. The people responsible for these projects are on the cutting edge of development efforts, yet they often feel they are fighting an uphill battle. Violence remains pervasive in the region, with estimates showing that one woman in three still experiences abuse in her lifetime.1 Attitudes and practices that perpetuate violence against women are accepted as norms, and countless crimes go unpunished ( pdf, 108 pages).
  • Engaging Men and Boys in Refugee Settings to Address Sexual and Gender Based Violence
    UN Women, Women’s Commission & Sonk - A report from a workshop held in Cape Town, South Africa, 22-25 September, 2008 Prepared by Caroline Aasheim, Dale Buscher, Dean Peacock and Lynn Ngugi
    Engaging men and boys has emerged as a vital strategy for ending gender based violence, including in refugee and post-conflict settings. While prevention and response activities are essential, the humanitarian community and host country service providers understand that they must move beyond simply addressing each individual case of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and begin to address the societal, cultural, economic, religious and political systems that either perpetuate or allow for violence based on gender to continue (pdf. 28 pages).
  • UNFPA - Engaging men & boys
    UNFPA works with men and boys around the world to advance gender equality – with benefits for all. These programmes are encouraging men and boys to abandon harmful stereotypes, embrace respectful, healthy relationships, and support the human rights of all people, everywhere.
  • Challenging sexual and gender-based violence in institutional settings
    By immersing the participants in a programme of dialogue and action that challenge the inherent nature of male privileges and power structures in society – government, academia and workplace – the men learned a lot about themselves and how they can begin to address inequities. By providing step-by-step tools, discussion topics and stories about the Mobilising Men participants, the publication acts as a guide for activists to instil change in institutions that impede women’s progress through both subtle and obvious barriers (pdf, 114 pages).
  • Masculinities & Engaging Men: Training Manual to end GBV
    African Women’s Development and Communication Network 2013
    The overall goal of the Men to Men Programme is to create a critical mass of African men who are able to influence communities, organizations and the public to believe in and practise gender equality as a norm. The manual on masculinities provides rich content for trainers and facilitation tips for each session. The manual is meant to enhance men's knowledge on the link between masculinities, GBV and the spread of HIV/AIDS, and equip men with practical skills for training other men on combating GBV and the spread of HIV/AIDS.
  • Gender-Based Violence: An advocacy guide for grassroots activists in Burundi
    This guide was developed as a resource for communitybased activists who are working to eliminate gender-based violence in their communities. Often, activists have several roles. Sometimes activists provide case management, and sometimes they educate their communities. Some activists do both. The aims is to create an environment that promotes safe, peaceful and productive families and communities and to envision a Burundi that is free from gender-based violence. CARE’s Great Lakes Advocacy Initiative (GLAI) 2012.


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Female Genital Mutilation

Female genital mutilation – FGM – represents a serious impact both to the physical and mental health of the affected women and girls. It is part of reality for many women around the world, to consider as quite severe not least because it is furthermore seen as “normal” in many ways of many of the involved persons. So it represents a major challenge to face because of the many background aspects which are to consider.

  • Female genital mutilation - fact sheet
    WHO 2017
    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. –
  • Eliminating female genital mutilation, an interagency statement.
    WHO 2008
    Statement of the WHO about that topic, definitions, consequences and needed actions.
  • Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation/cutting
    UNICEF-Innocenti Research Centre 2008.
    This Innocenti Digest is a contribution to a growing movement to end the practice of FGM/C around the world. As early as 1952, the UN Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution on the issue
  • Female genital mutilation: a handbook for frontline workers
    WHO 2000
    Booklet with examples (f.e. Egypt, Kenya, Senegal, Uganda), impacts on women`s health an situation, possible prevention programs. –
  • A statistical exploration on female genital mutilation.
    UNICEF 2013
    Solid long collection of data, facts and statistics. Socio-economic and demographic facts, underlying causes and attitudes, conclusions and recommendations.
  • Combating Female Genital Mutilation in Europe
    Sophie Poldermans 2006
    Comparative analysis of legislative and preventive tools in combating female genital mutilation (FGM) in Europe. The paper discusses the possibilities to combat the problem in Europe, where it becomes a concern too, due to immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers.
  • The impact of harmful traditional practices on the girl child
    UNICEF 2006
    Article about the ompact of FGM on girl children. Focus on background, statistics and facts, as well as on religion, beliefs etc. Discussion of possible interactions.
  • Ending female genital mutilation/cutting lessons from a decade of progress
    Population Reference Bureau 2013.
    This review will focus on a few of the key successful approaches and interventions that have had a significant impact on abandonment, identified with guidance from the experts interviewed. This report pulls together the lessons learned from the last decade and crafts a roadmap for how to strengthen programs moving forward.
  • Impact of psychological disorders after female genital mutilation among Kurdish girls in Northern Iraq
    Jan Ilhan Kizilhan - Eur. J. Psychiat.Vol. 25, N.° 2, (92-100) 2011
    This study investigated the mental health status of young girls after genital mutilation in Northern Iraq. Although experts assume that circumcised girls are more prone to psychiatric illnesses than non-circumcised girls, little research has been conducted to confirm this claim. For the purpose of this study, it was assumed that female genital mutilation is connected with a high rate of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD).
  • UNFPA-UNICEF joint programme on female genital mutilation-cutting: accelerating change
    The UNFPA/UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting 2017.
    UNFPA and UNICEF jointly lead the largest global programme to accelerate the abandonment of female genital mutilation, it highlights some of the achievements, challenges and best practices for the abandonment of FGM/C and emphasizes the importance of continued partnerships with governments, media, civil society organizations and religious leaders.
  • Promoting FGM Abandonment in Egypt: Introduction of Positive Deviance
    Pamela A. McCloud, Dr. Shahira Aly, Sarah Goltz 2003.
    CEPDA has been working to end the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Egypt. CEDPA spearheaded the use of the “positive deviance approach” to FGM abandonment and has been engaged in a learning experience with many partners and communities in Egypt. After working through the various phases of the program, a model has been developed to guide community organizations in implementing FGM abandonment programs. The development of this innovative model has created a strong base for the current FGM Abandonment Program activities.
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Human Trafficking

“Human trafficking” is called the practice of people being tricked, lured, coerced or otherwise removed from their home or country, then forced to work with no or low payment, or on terms which are highly exploitative. The practice is considered to be the trade or commerce of people, which has many features of slavery, and which is illegal in most countries. The victims of human trafficking are used in a variety of situations, including prostitution and forced labor and other forms of involuntary servitude. The sale of babies and children for adoption or other purposes is also considered to be trafficking. A wide variety of crimes and human rights abuses are associated with trafficking. We have focused here on human trafficking concerning women and girls, as this represents a part of Gender-based Violence.

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Organisations and sites

Some useful links to organizations distributing information and working with survivors of GBV.

Kirkegata 5, 0153 Oslo, Norway