Selected links on Gender Based Violence
In 1993, the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women offered the first official definition of the term “Gender-based Violence”:
“Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including
threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” Gender-based violence has become
an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person’s will, and that results from power inequalities that are based on gender roles.
Around the world, gender-based violence almost always has a greater negative impact on women and girls. For this reason the term "Gender-based Violence"
is often used interchangeably with the term "Violence against Women" (VAW). GBV principally affects those across all cultures. GBV can occur throughout a
woman's lifecycle, and can include everything from early childhood marriage and genital mutilation, to sexual abuse, domestic violence, legal discrimination
In what way should we meet women who have been victims of gender-based violence? It is extremely important to meet women who have been victims of
gender-based violence in a respectful and dignified manner.
Below we have collected some useful links about GBV:
Definitions and basic terms to Gender Based Violence
Guidelines and Tools
Human rights and Gender Based Violence - legal texts, resolutions etc
Gender Based Violence in the context of war and conflict
Female Genital Mutilation
Organisations and sites
Definitions and basic terms to Gender Based Violence
This presents a collection of articles, websites etc. You’ll find a wide choice of
more general documents - statements and definitions of the WHO or UN, as well as more specific ones
addressing f.ex the situation in some countries. Some cover Gender-based Violence all over, also included
is domestic violence against women (occurring all over the globe, also in “peaceful” countries). Some are more
specific concerning GBV in the context of war or conflict.
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- Definitions of Sexual and Gender-based Violence
Part of a report-cluster which covers a wide range of aspects on GBV – quite useful. - UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 2004
- WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women This study analyses data from 10 countries and sheds new light on the prevalence of violence against women in countries where few data were previously available. It also uncovers the forms and patterns of this violence across different countries and cultures, documenting the
consequences of violence for women’s health. No specific focus on GBV in the context of conflict and war. - UN 2000
- UNWOMEN – facts and figures on VAW (violence against women)
General overview on VAW, definitions, terms, facts. - UN 2000
- Violence against Women, its causes and consequences
Overview over VAW, also in the context of war and conflict zones, and suggestions of topics in need of further attention. - Printable version of a speech by the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, 2009.
- Shattered lives - Definition of terms, overview over immediate medical care for sexual violence victims
This booklet includes both an overview over the topic, the necessary procedures concerning the victims/survivors (mostly medical) in the field, as well as explanations by means of presenting the situation in some chosen countries. - Mèdecins Sans Frontieres 2009
Mental health and psychosocial support for conflict-related sexual violence: 10 myths
World Health Organization 2012
Gender Based Violence – “key messages”, definitions, overview, facts, statistics
This site covers key facts as well as a wide range of statistics (globally as well as focusing on refugees and IDP`s)
and a long list of references and links – very useful to gain an overview. - RHRC 2007
- Gender Based Violence – A Price too high
Definition of GBV, broad overview, examples. Focus in general on (domestic) GBV, no specific aspects on GBV in the context of war or conflict zones. - UN Population Fund 2005
- What Social Workers should know about Gender Based Violence
Definitions, background, implications on intervention. - NASW 2001
- Rape as a Method of Torture
Especially chapter 2. Psychological Approaches to Working with Political Rape and chapter 6.
Rape and Mental Health: the Psychiatric Sequelae of Violation as an Abuse of Human Rights are relevant for the mental health aspect.
Edited by Dr Michael Peel - Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture 2004
Guidelines and Tools
This represents a collection of manuals and guidelines, which try from different points of view to help field workers to cope with the aftermath of
GBV, the traumas and injuries of the survivors. Very often the focus here is aimed at situations during or after war/conflict. Therefore most of these
manuals are targeting more practical aspects of fieldwork, as for instance organizing a field camp. Some provide a lot of information about GBV.
Some try also to set focus on communication with the survivors, as the topic GBV is a very sensitive one and therefore sometimes difficult to approach
in contact with the survivor.
The effects of GBV are manifold and always severe. There are physical injuries that may remain, as chronic pain syndromes, muscle and skeleton damages,
infections, sexually transmitted diseases. In the recent years it has come more in focus that also the psychological effects are severe, sometimes more
serious than the physical ones. To name here PTSD (post traumatic stress disease)
in all its varieties, depression, panic disorders.
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Mental health and gender-based violence
Helping survivors of sexual violence in conflict – a training manual
HHRI 2014 - This training has been developed for helpers who provide assistance and support to women who survive gender-based violence (GBV) and sexual trauma during disasters,
conflicts and emergency situations, where access to health professionals with psychological or psychiatric expertise is limited.
We will also like to introduce you to our Gender based violence manual – website.
This website is concentrated on our manual "Mental health and
gender-based violence Helping survivors of sexual violence in conflict – a training manual”. On this web site, you can download
the manual and have a closer look at the pilots –trainings that we organized prior to the completion of the manual. We have edited the
Butterfly- woman story into one continuous story, as well presented the other tools, such as the grounding exercises, the helping the helpers
part and ideas as to how you can conduct training in your context.
We have also made a small toolbox - boklet with all the tools in the manual, easy to translate into yur own language to make it easier to hold your own trainings.
This website is also translated to Spanish. Even though the manual itself,
is not translated yet, many of the elements are now in Spanish. You will be able to read the Butterfly woman story, do grounding exercises and
hopefully to set up your own training based on this. If you are interested in organizing training at your workplace, in your organization or other relevant contexts,
please send us an e-mail and we will provide you with more information and advice, should you want this.
IASC Guidelines for Gender- based Violence interventions in humanitarian settings
Guidelines (334 p.)
with focus on practical aspects and approach ( f.e. shelter, security, food). Nothing in specific about mental health.
- “Prevention of and response to sexual violence in emergencies” The GBV Guidelines have been revised from the
2005 version by an inter-agency Task Team led by UNICEF and UNFPA, and endorsed by the IASC in 2015
Mental health and psychosocial support for conflict-related sexual violence: principles and interventions1
This is a summary of the report from a meeting on Responding to the psychosocial
and mental health needs of sexual violence survivors in conflict-affected
settings, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), with United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), on
behalf of United Nations Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict (UNAction),
on 28–30 November 2011 in Ferney-Voltaire, France.
A practical approach to gender based violence – a programme guide for health care providers & managers
Manual (74 p.) which tries to provide health care providers with the necessary information about GBV.
This manual has some focus on how to approach a difficult topic to talk about, as GBV represents for most of
the survivors, in a psychological way. It tries to arouse sensibility and improved interviewing skills. - UN Population Fund 2001
Guidance for mediators: Addressing conflict-related sexual violence in ceasefire and peace agreements
This guidance offers advice to aid the mediator and his/her team in addressing a frequently used method and tactic of warfare:
conflict-related sexual violence. It provides strategies for including this security and peace building concern within ceasefire
and security arrangements and in framing provisions for post-conflict justice and reparations. -UN Department of Political Affairs 2012
Handbook for Coordinating GBV interventions in humanitarian settings
A quick-reference tool that provides practical guidance on leadership roles, key responsibilities and specific actions to be
taken when establishing and maintaining a GBV coordination mechanism in an emergency. The handbook is based on the IASC Guidelines for GBV- Interventions
in Humanitarian Settings (2005) and also takes into account lessons learned, good practices and emerging resources related to GBV coordination
within the cluster approach/humanitarian reform process as well as relatively recent global initiatives on GBV in emergencies.
Gender-based Violence Area of Responsibility Working Group (2010, 348 p.).
- Gender-based Violence Tools Manual
This manual (207 p.) tries to cover most of administrative and organizational considerations required to establish help. Lots of form-sheets useful to organize help practically. Form-sheets for structured interviews etc. “For Assessment & Program Design, Monitoring & Evaluation in conflict-affected settings” RHRC 2004
- Facilitator's Guide - Training Manual for Multisectoral and Interagency Prevention and Response to Gender-based Violence
This manual includes and provides information and (interactive) training to create workshops and seminars, for planning interventions to address GBV in displaced settings around the world. Most focus on administrative and practical issues, some information about mental (psychological) damage after GBV. - RHRC 2004
- Camp management toolkit
Prevention and response to gender based violence on page 126, tries to cover
most under practical aspects the challenge to focus on GBV, with basic examples including camp design and layout. Nothing specific about mental health. Also Available in Spanish, Arabic and French. Norwegian Refugee Council 2002, 331 pages.
- Clinical management of rape survivors
Guidelines how to approach survivors of GBV, clinical management on basic level (“how to examine..”), poorly concerning mental health/psychological impact. - UNHCR 2004
- Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons
Guidelines with an overview over the topic GBV, with some considerations about prevention and response. - UNHCR 2003
- Mental health of refugees
Manual (96 p.)to help those who work with refugees/displaced persons. Here is the focus on to enable the helpers themselves to cope with the traumas of the survivors, and to raise skills in approaching the mental health problems. 10 units, suitable to set up workshops. Very useful. - UNHCR/WHO 1996
- Checklist for Action - Prevention & Response to Gender-Based Violence in Displaced Settings
Short checklist approaching mainly practical considerations how to cope with the aftermath of GBV and the survivors. - RHRC 2004
- Researcher Trauma, Safety and Sexual Violence Research
Briefing paper- Working and researching with victims of sexual violence can be traumatic to the researcher and can result in secondary
traumatic stress or vicarious traumatisation. This paper explores the experiences of
sexual violence researchers from different countries, identifying the issues that traumatized them and the protective strategies they found effective. - SVRI 2010
- Communication skills in working with survivors of GBV / workshop
A 5-day-training in communication/Trainers Workshop (194 p.). Enables participants to emphasize better in communication with survivors, and make them capable to organize a setting that takes care both of the survivor and the field-worker. Can be used to set up a workshop. Lots of form-sheets, info-leaflets, hand-outs, quite useful.
- Sexual and Gender-based Violence - Overview
A field manual on reproductive health in refugee situations, which provides with considerations and advice concerning prevention, responding, monitoring. - UNFPA, 1999
- Guidelines for medico-legal care for victims of sexual violence
Solid manual (154 p.) which provides with knowledge about GBV and mostly focuses on necessary settings, but strongly practical (f.e. how to physically examine, about documentation, poorly focus on counseling). - WHO 2003
Trauma Treatment Manual
A guide in text-form to raise understanding for the topic GBV and trauma,
and improve communication-skills for field workers helping trauma-survivors, communication examples for approach. -
Ed Schmookler PhD, 2001
Preventing Gender-based Violence, Building Livelihoods Guidance and Tools for Improved Programming
New livelihood strategies can increase the risk
of gender-based violence (GBV). Women often have
no safety net; they usually flee with few resources and
little preparation and may become separated from or
lose family members. A lack of access to economic
opportunities while displaced often forces women and
girls to resort to harmful measures to survive. Women’s Refugee Commission 2011
Managing Gender-based Violence Programmes in Emergencies e-learning course.
Developed by the UNFPA and World Education, Inc., in consultation with a wide range of
GBV experts and humanitarian and development actors worldwide, the goal of this course is to improve
the knowledge of programme managers to better address the issue of gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies. 2011
Human rights and Gender Based Violence - legal texts, resolutions etc
Here we try to present a collection of legal framework, which already exist. Especially The United Nations
agreement on some resolutions, which define the topic in a very solid mode, including suggestions on how to proceed.
Implementing these resolutions and agreements in the reality of
war-situations and preventing GBV from happening is the issue that is to be focused on. In response to persistent advocacy from civil society the UN Security Council has so far, adopted five resolutions on "Women, Peace and Security".
These resolutions are: Security Councils Resolution 1325 (2000); 1820 (2009); 1888 (2009); 1889 (2010) and 1960 (2011).
The five resolutions should be taken together under a single umbrella, as they comprise the Women, Peace and Security international policy framework.
They guide work to promote and protect the rights of women in conflict and post-conflict situations. Additionally, as binding Security Council resolutions, they should be implemented by all Member States and relevant actors, including UN system entities and parties to conflict.
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- UN-Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security
Essential and fundamental UN-resolution about that topic – “impact of armed conflict on women and girls”, with proposals how to realize targets. - UN 2000
UN-resolution 1820 on sexual violence against civilians in conflict
Essential UN-resolution, with proposals how to monitor and how to realize targets. - UN 2008
Strengthening the protection of Women from Torture
UNHCR, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture and other cruel,
inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment, A/HRC/7/3, 15 January 2008. The term “torture” seen in connection with “violence against
women”, and some conclusions to be drawn international, with implications on justice, reparation, other (human) rights.
- Indicators on Violence Against Women and State Response
Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences / Human Rights Council, 2008
- International legal instruments protecting women's rights
Collection of international resolutions, conventions, declarations (with all links), a great overview over the legal instruments which can be used. - UN Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs 2004
- Nairobi declaration on women`s and girl`s right to a remedy and reparation
Conclusion/declaration as a result of an international meeting on “Women’s and Girls’ Right to a Remedy and Reparation”, held in Nairobi from 19 to 21 March 2007. Participants have been women’s rights advocates and activists, as well as survivors of sexual violence in situations of conflict, from Africa, Asia, Europe, Central, North and South America. Here`s the focus on remedy and reparation for the survivors of GBV. - Nairobi 2007
- Combating Gender Based Violence – Millennium Development Goals
Gender-based violence seen in different contexts, with the goal to present an “advocacy kit” for some of the most important topics: in combination with poverty, reproductive health, HIV, in conflict situations. Issues and challenges with all these topics. - UN Population Fund, 2005
- Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women
A declaration elaborated as a result after an international meeting on the topic about “violence against women”. An attempt to define women`s rights, duties of the states, etc. - Belèm/Brazil, 1995
Gender Based Violence in the context of war and conflict
There are many articles covering the topic of GBV in a more general meaning, here also
including domestic violence (occurring also in “stabile” countries). We are trying here to
collect some essays and articles, which are highlighting the specific problems concerning GBV in war and conflict zones
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- Our Bodies - Their Battle Ground: Gender-based Violence in Conflict Zones
“GBV – A silent, vicious epidemic”. An overview about GBV (definitions), with focus on war and conflict-zones. Some examples are given, to illustrate difficulties in approaching the problem and dealing with consequences. - UN Office for the coordination of human affairs, 2004
- Gender based violence in conflict zones - Rape as a tool of war
Discussion of GBV, with focus on some thoughts about the necessity of prevention, psychosocial support, preventive actions, protection of women etc. - UNFPA 2004
- Ending sexual violence in Darfur: An advocacy agenda
This booklet gives a great overview over the impact of sexual violence under the conflict in Darfur. With focus on the impact on rape, and emerging issues as protection and health response. - Refugees international 2007
- Sexual Violence and its Consequences among Displaced Persons in Darfur and Chad
Presenting the situation in Darfur and Chad, with some focus on the social, psychological, medical/clinical consequences of VAW. Short presentation of preferable, necessary standards for response and caretaking. - Human Rights Watch, April 2005
- ”Shattered lives - Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath”
Long and solid report about the incidents during the genocide in Rwanda in 1994/95. Background, facts, description of events and crimes, recommendations for response. - Human Rights Watch 1996
- Promising democracy imposing theocracy - Gender Based Violence and the US war on Iraq
This report highlights the situation for women in Iraq, and the role the US and the US-military has played in establishing the existing situation. - MADRE 2007
- Prevalence of Gender-Based Violence: Preliminary Findings from a Field Assessment in Nine Villages in the Peja Region, Kosovo
Long and solid report/essay describing the situation for women, with lots of detailed examples how GBV impacted to women then and there. - RHRC Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the University of Arizona.
- A psychosocial model of healing from the traumas of ethnic cleansing the case of Bosnia
Article about the situation of traumatized women
in Bosnia, and programs to help. – 2001, Marta Cullberg Weston, The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation
- Sexual and Gender Based Violence against refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons
This is a solid long (168 s.) guideline about GBV. It includes an overview about GBV, guiding principles, considerations on preventing sexual and gender-based violence, as well as thoughts about responding to GBV (health, psychosocial, legal aspects). - UNHCR 2003
- Impunity and Gender Based Violence – the second wound of rape
Article about the necessity to focus on the legal framework essential to deal with consequences of GBV, which in many countries lacks efficiency (because of many reasons, often founded in culture, religion etc). - IRIN 2004
Gender equality cannot be achieved without the involvement of men and boys. But change is slowly taking place,
and men are increasingly working alongside women to support gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.
- Engaging Boys and
Men in GBV Prevention and Reproductive Health in Conflict and Emergency-Response Settings
A Workshop Module
The ACQUIRE Project, USAID
This module is for personnel working in conflict and other emergency-response settings who are interested in engaging boys and men
in gender-based violence prevention and reproductive health. This includes those managing or staffing reproductive health, HIV and AIDS,
and/or GBV prevention projects in emergency-response settings or conflict zones. Specific audiences to consider targeting are NGO project
managers, field staff, health sector coordinators, health promoters, donor representatives, local representatives of ministries of health,
and community liaisons working for UNCHR or other U.N. agencies (pdf. 60 pages).
- Partnering with men to end gender-based violence practices that work from Eastern Europe and Central Asia
UNFPA - This publication is about five UNFPA-supported projects in South and Eastern Europe that have
made monumental strides in engaging men in the prevention of gender-based violence. The
people responsible for these projects are on the cutting edge of development efforts, yet
they often feel they are fighting an uphill battle. Violence remains pervasive in the region,
with estimates showing that one woman in three still experiences abuse in her lifetime.1
Attitudes and practices that perpetuate violence against women are accepted as norms, and
countless crimes go unpunished ( pdf, 108 pages).
Engaging Men and Boys in Refugee Settings to Address Sexual and Gender Based Violence
UN Women, Women’s Commission & Sonk - A report from a workshop held in Cape Town, South Africa, 22-25 September, 2008 Prepared by Caroline Aasheim, Dale Buscher, Dean Peacock and Lynn Ngugi
Engaging men and boys has emerged as a vital strategy for ending gender based violence, including in refugee and post-conflict settings. While prevention and response activities are essential, the humanitarian community and host country service providers understand that they must move beyond simply addressing each individual case of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and begin to address the societal, cultural, economic, religious and political systems that either perpetuate or allow for violence based on gender to continue (pdf. 28 pages).
- UNFPA - Engaging men & boys
UNFPA works with men and boys around the world to advance gender equality – with benefits for all.
These programmes are encouraging men and boys to abandon harmful stereotypes, embrace respectful,
healthy relationships, and support the human rights of all people, everywhere.
Challenging sexual and gender-based violence in institutional settings
By immersing the participants in a
programme of dialogue and action that challenge the inherent nature of male privileges and power structures in society – government, academia and workplace – the men learned a lot about themselves and how they can begin to address inequities. By providing step-by-step tools, discussion topics and stories about the Mobilising Men participants, the publication acts as a guide for activists to instil change in institutions that impede women’s progress through both subtle and obvious barriers (pdf, 114 pages).
Masculinities & Engaging Men: Training Manual to end GBV
African Women’s Development and Communication Network
The overall goal of the Men to Men Programme is to create a critical mass of African men who are able to
influence communities, organizations and the public to believe in and practise gender equality as a norm. The manual
on masculinities provides rich content for trainers and facilitation tips for each session. The manual is meant to
enhance men's knowledge on the link between masculinities, GBV and the spread of HIV/AIDS, and equip men with practical
skills for training other men on combating GBV and the spread of HIV/AIDS.
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Female Genital Mutilation
Female genital mutilation – FGM – represents a serious impact both to the physical and mental health of the affected women and girls. It is part of reality for many women around the world, to consider as quite severe not least because it is furthermore seen as “normal” in many ways of many of the involved persons. So it represents a major challenge to face because of the many background aspects which are to consider.
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- Eliminating female genital mutilation, an interagency statement.
Statement of the WHO about that topic, definitions, consequences and needed actions. – WHO 2008
- Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation/cutting UNICEF-Innocenti Research Centre 2008
- Female genital mutilation: a handbook for frontline workers
Booklet with examples (f.e. Egypt, Kenya, Senegal, Uganda), impacts on women`s health an situation, possible prevention programs. – WHO 2000
- A statistical exploration on female genital mutilation.
Solid long collection of data, facts and statistics. Socio-economic and demographic facts, underlying causes and attitudes, conclusions and recommendations. – UNICEF 2005
- Combating Female Genital Mutilation in Europe
Comparative analysis of legislative and preventive tools in combating female genital mutilation (FGM) in Europe. The paper discusses the possibilities to combat the problem in Europe, where it becomes a concern too, due to immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers. – 2005/06
- The impact of harmful traditional practices on the girl child
Article about the ompact of FGM on girl children. Focus on background, statistics and facts,
as well as on religion, beliefs etc. Discussion of possible interactions. – UNICEF 2006
- Impact of psychological disorders after female genital mutilation among Kurdish girls in Northern Iraq
This study investigated the mental health status
of young girls after genital mutilation in Northern Iraq. Although experts assume that
circumcised girls are more prone to psychiatric illnesses than non-circumcised girls, little
research has been conducted to confirm this claim. For the purpose of this study, it was assumed
that female genital mutilation is connected with a high rate of posttraumatic stress
disorders (PTSD). Jan Ilhan Kizilhan - Eur. J. Psychiat.Vol. 25, N.° 2, (92-100) 2011
- UNFPA-UNICEF joint programme on female genital mutilation-cutting:
Annual Report 2010 for the UNFPA/UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting.
The annual report highlights some of the achievements, challenges and best practices for the abandonment of FGM/C and emphasizes the
importance of continued partnerships with governments, media, civil society organizations and religious leaders.
“Human trafficking” is called the practice of people being tricked, lured, coerced or otherwise removed from their home or country,
then forced to work with no or low payment, or on terms which are highly exploitative. The practice is considered to be the trade or commerce
of people, which has many features of slavery, and which is illegal in most countries. The victims of human trafficking are used in a variety
of situations, including prostitution and forced labor and other forms of involuntary servitude. The sale of babies and children for adoption
or other purposes is also considered to be trafficking. A wide variety of crimes and human rights abuses are associated with trafficking.
We have focused here on human trafficking concerning women and girls, as this represents a part of Gender-based Violence.
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- The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols
This is considered as the main international instrument in the fight against transnational organized crime. – UN 2000
”Toolkit” to Combat Trafficking in Persons
“Electronic toolkit”, with a solid collection of assessments and links, intended to provide guidance, recommend resources, facilitate the sharing of knowledge. Legal and legislative framework, law enforcement and prosecution, victim assistance and prevention, etc. – UNODOC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2010
- Trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation in the Americas
Overview over the topic, seen in context with human rights, health, legal framework etc. – PAHO Pan-american health organization
- Poverty, gender and human trafficking in Sub-Sahara
“Re-thinking best practices in migration management”, solid article (141 p.) which tries to unpack the interconnectedness between human trafficking and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a critical analysis of migration processes in relation to human rights abuse. – Thanh-Dam Truong, UNESCO 2006
- Revisiting the Human trafficking paradigm: the Bangladesh experience
Definition, difficulties, possibilities. Many flowcharts. – “Trafficking thematic group” 2004
Psychosocial support to groups of victims of human trafficking in transit situations.
This publication highlights the importance of considering the psychosocial approach.
Trafficking for sexual exploitation of Romanian women. A qualitative research in Romania, Italy and Spain
The current research was conducted in the context of the GIRL – Gender Interventions for the Rights
and Liberties of Women and Girls Victims of Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation project, implemented from 2014 to 2016 and co-funded by the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme of the European Union.
Why is gender an important factor in the process of trafficking for sexual exploitation?
Guide for professionals, with a special focus on the trafficking for sexual exploitation of Romanian women and girls
- The Relationship of Trauma to Mental Disorders Among Trafficked and Sexually Exploited Girls and Women
Mazeda Hossain et al. 2010 Concludes that the need for mental health care for trafficked persons
by highlighting the importance of assessing severity and duration of trafficking-related
abuses and need for adequate recovery time. Therapies for anxiety, PTSD, and mood disorders in low-resource settings should be evaluated.Some articles (online links) collecting considerations about trafficking. - WomenWatch – UN 2004
- Trafficking of women
Some articles (online links) collecting considerations about trafficking. - WomenWatch – UN 2004
Organisations and sites
Some useful links to organizations distributing information and working with survivors of GBV.