Ellie Smith, 2012
The conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been characterised by the widespread and systematic perpetration of rape and other forms of sexual violence. Rape has been committed by all actors in the conflict, including those operating in the Ituri region of the country, and the use of rape by Lubangas Union des Patriotes Congolais (UPC) in particular has been widely reported and documented by the UN and NGOs alike.
Tonic immobility during sexual assault a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression
Anna Möller, Hans Peter Söndergaard, Lotti Helström June
Active resistance is considered to be the ‘normal’ reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.
Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law
Recalling the adoption of the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law by the Commission on Human Rights in its resolution 2005/35 of 19 April 2005 and by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 2005/30 of 25 July 2005, in which the Council recommended to the General Assembly that it adopt the Basic Principles and Guidelines.
The crime of enforced disappearance is as unacceptable today as it was decades ago when it first came to the attention of the international community, and there are neither reasons nor circumstances that can ever be invoked to justify it, said Suela Janina, Chair of the Committee on Enforced Disappearances
A disappearance has a doubly paralysing impact: on the victims, frequentlytortured and in constant fear for their lives, and on their families, ignorantof the fate of their loved ones, their emotions alternating between hopeand despair, wondering and waiting, sometimes for years, for news thatmay never come.
ICMP ensures the cooperation of governments and others in addressing the issue of missing persons, including provisions to build institutional capacity, encourage public involvement and address the needs of justice and provides technical assistance to governments in locating, recovering and identifying missing persons.
TRIAL International is a non-governmental organization fighting impunity for international crimes and supporting victims in their quest for justice. TRIAL International takes an innovative approach to the law, paving the way to justice for survivors of unspeakable sufferings. The organization provides legal assistance, litigates cases, develops local capacity and pushes the human rights agenda forward.
One of the Working Group’s primary task is to assist families in determining the fate or whereabouts of their family members who are reportedly disappeared. In that humanitarian capacity, the Working Group serves as a channel of communication between family members of victims of enforced disappearance and other sources reporting cases of disappearances, and the Governments concerned.
Disappearances are a tragedy not just for the individual but also for families, who are left in the dark. Not knowing what has become of a husband or wife, child, father, mother, brother or sister is a source of terrible anguish for countless families affected by armed conflict or internal violence all over the world.