Patel et al., 2018
The Lancet Commission on Global Mental Health and Sustainable Development is a comprehensive synthesis of knowledge on global mental health, designed to catalyse worldwide action. It builds on the 2007 and 2011 The Lancet series on global mental health that helped make mental health care a greater priority worldwide. The ultimate goal of the Commission is to guide action to reduce the global burden of mental health problems. The Commission should give fresh impetus to the prioritisation of mental health, helping ensure physical and mental health are valued equally by the global health and development communities.
The Commission has three unique guiding principles:
– our approach to mental health covers the full spectrum of mental health from day-to-day wellness to long-term, disabling conditions.
– mental health is the product of psychosocial, environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting with neurodevelopmental processes.
– mental health should be respected as a fundamental right.
A community of mental health innovators – researchers, practitioners, policy-makers, service user advocates, and donors from around the world – sharing innovative resources and ideas to promote mental health and improve the lives of people with mental, neurological and substance use disorders. MHIN aims to facilitate the development and uptake of effective mental health interventions.
Cognitive Neuroscience Society
A relatively new area of the literature on human response to trauma, particularly the trauma experienced during sexual violence, is that of tonic immobility. Defined as self-paralysis, or as the inability to move even when not forcibly restrained, tonic immobility has long been studied in non-human animals as the freeze response to extreme stress.
James Hopper and David Lisak, 2014
In states of high stress, fear or terror like combat and sexual assault, the prefrontal cortex is impaired sometimes even effectively shut down by a surge of stress chemicals.
Why are memories of sexual assault so often fragmentary and confusing? The answer has big implications for people who’ve been sexually assaulted, for those who investigate and prosecute such crimes, and for everyone else who knows or works with someone who’s been sexually assaulted.
Jim Hopper, Ph.D.
This article provides an introduction to the impact of trauma on memory and recollection, including how traumatic events may affect an individuals ability to recall or give proper sequence to details, including information that an objective observer (and even the victim/survivor/ complainant) would deem vital and seemingly unforgettable.
Tonic immobility during sexual assault a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression
Anna Möller, Hans Peter Söndergaard, Lotti Helström June
Active resistance is considered to be the ‘normal’ reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.
D. Silove et al.
This paper considers contemporary issues in the refugee mental health field, including developments in research, conceptual models, social and psychological interventions, and policy. Prevalence data yielded by cross sectional epidemiological studies do not allow a clear distinction to be made between situational forms of distress and frank mental disorder, a shortcoming that may be addressed by longitudinal studies (WPA).
Council of Europe
The thousands of human beings who have already been through the severe pain of torture also face a range of devastating long-term consequences. In particular, survivors of torture frequently experience chronic pain, headaches, insomnia, nightmares, depression, flashbacks, anxiety, and panic attacks, and can become overwhelmed by feelings of fear, helplessness and even guilt because of what happened to them. Feelings of shame and a loss of dignity on the part of torture victims are often compounded by stigmatisation in the community and social isolation. Post-traumatic stress disorder affects both the victims themselves and their families. If left untreated, the consequences of torture can extend throughout a persons life-time and even beyond, across generations, having a corrosive effect upon entire societies.
Among the evidence-based treatment methods that GCRT uses are trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, prolonged expositional therapy, brief eclectic psychotherapy and somatic experience therapy. Additionally, cognitive, cognitive-emotional and body-focused psychotherapy methods are used in order to achieve stabilization in cases of complex trauma or trauma-related disorders.