Van Schaack B, Reicherter D, Chhang Y, 2011
This text explores the profound impact of war and genocide on human psychology with a focus on Cambodia and the work of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC). Interdisciplinary in nature, this edited volume presents the current research on the impact of trauma not only on survivors’ mental health processes but also on the ability of survivors to participate in legal processes, such as the trials of surviving members of the Khmer Rouge before the ECCC.
Caring for Child Survivors of Sexual Abuse – Guidelines for health and psychosocial service providers in humanitarian settings
International Rescue Committee and UNICEF, 2012
The guideline is based on global research on child sexual abuse and evidence from field practice. The CCS Resource Package brings a much needed comprehensive and practical approach to helping child survivors and their families
recover and heal from the impacts of sexual abuse.
Patel et al., 2018
The Lancet Commission on Global Mental Health and Sustainable Development is a comprehensive synthesis of knowledge on global mental health, designed to catalyse worldwide action. It builds on the 2007 and 2011 The Lancet series on global mental health that helped make mental health care a greater priority worldwide. The ultimate goal of the Commission is to guide action to reduce the global burden of mental health problems. The Commission should give fresh impetus to the prioritisation of mental health, helping ensure physical and mental health are valued equally by the global health and development communities. The Commission has three unique guiding principles: – our approach to mental health covers the full spectrum of mental health from day-to-day wellness to long-term, disabling conditions. – mental health is the product of psychosocial, environmental, biological and genetic factors interacting with neurodevelopmental processes. – mental health should be respected as a fundamental right.
A community of mental health innovators – researchers, practitioners, policy-makers, service user advocates, and donors from around the world – sharing innovative resources and ideas to promote mental health and improve the lives of people with mental, neurological and substance use disorders. MHIN aims to facilitate the development and uptake of effective mental health interventions.
Cognitive Neuroscience Society
A relatively new area of the literature on human response to trauma, particularly the trauma experienced during sexual violence, is that of tonic immobility. Defined as self-paralysis, or as the inability to move even when not forcibly restrained, tonic immobility has long been studied in non-human animals as the freeze response to extreme stress.
James Hopper and David Lisak, 2014
In states of high stress, fear or terror like combat and sexual assault, the prefrontal cortex is impaired sometimes even effectively shut down by a surge of stress chemicals.
Why are memories of sexual assault so often fragmentary and confusing? The answer has big implications for people who’ve been sexually assaulted, for those who investigate and prosecute such crimes, and for everyone else who knows or works with someone who’s been sexually assaulted.
Jim Hopper, Ph.D.
This article provides an introduction to the impact of trauma on memory and recollection, including how traumatic events may affect an individuals ability to recall or give proper sequence to details, including information that an objective observer (and even the victim/survivor/ complainant) would deem vital and seemingly unforgettable.
Tonic immobility during sexual assault a common reaction predicting post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression
Anna Möller, Hans Peter Söndergaard, Lotti Helström June
Active resistance is considered to be the ‘normal’ reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depression.
Derrick Silove, Peter Ventevogel, Susan Rees, 2017
This paper considers contemporary issues in the refugee mental health field, including developments in research, conceptual models, social and psychological interventions, and policy. Prevalence data yielded by cross sectional epidemiological studies do not allow a clear distinction to be made between situational forms of distress and frank mental disorder, a shortcoming that may be addressed by longitudinal studies (WPA).