Robert J. Muscat, Global Peace Services USA
The interactions between mental health and socioeconomic functioning are complex. Much remains to be learned. Causation runs both ways. Post conflict mental health disabilities affecting the economic, social, and learning behavior of significant numbers of people can have deleterious effects on socioeconomic recovery. Community dynamics and economic conditions, good or bad, feedback on the prospects for individuals mental health recovery.
This module is part of the WHO Mental Health Policy and Service guidance package, which provides practical information to assist countries to improve the mental health of their populations. Important for countries that are rebuilding their governance.
UNHCR, Amadou Tijan Jallow
The Handbook for Repatriation and Reintegration Activities (the Handbook) is a guide for United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and partner staff in the field to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate repatriation and reintegration activities.
Conflict, Disaster, Homicide – Mental health reform in post-conflict areas: a policy analysis based on experiences in Bosnia Herzegovina and Kosovo.
Albert K. De Vries, Niek S. Klazinga
This policy analysis provides insight into the ongoing process of mental health reform and the difficulty of sustaining such reform in post-conflict areas. It is based on experiences in Bosnia Herzegovina and Kosovo in the former Yugoslavia.
In the past decade there has been an increasing focus on forgiveness and reconciliation in societies coming out of conflict. The concepts were previously the domain of philosophers and theologians but have become integrally linked to questions of political transition. There has been a shift from focusing on the investigative aspects of the truth-telling process and cataloging human rights abuses to considering their social impact. Issues such as healing, reconciliation, apology, acknowledgment, and forgiveness (to a lesser degree) have become central to the transitional justice debate.
CarmeloVazquez & Pau Perez-Salesi
The incidence of PTSD After the Madrid March 11, 2004 terrorist attacks, ranged from what can be expected as a normal prevalence in general population in Spain under non-traumatic conditions to values that, when applied to the general population, could be considered a dramatic epidemic of PTSD. These results demonstrate that inferences about the impact of traumatic events on the general population largely depend on the measure, definition and criteria used by the researcher. Slightly changing the criteria for PTSD makes an enormous difference to the amount of traumatization that is found ( Intervention 2007, Volume 5, Number 1).
Exhumation of Mass Graves in Iraq, Considerations for Forensic Investigations, Humanitarian Needs, and the Demands of Justice
Eric Stover; William D. Haglund, Margaret Samuels
As part of a larger strategy to rebuild Iraq’s health care system, the coordinating body could also oversee the training of local forensic scientists in the recovery and analysis of skeletal remains and other health care professionals in the assessment and treatment of the mental health of the surviving families of the missing. At the same time, any future internationally coordinated search for the missing should not undermine the capacity of local institutions to develop culturally appropriate responses to what are ultimately local problems that the people of Iraq will continue to face for decades to come.
Wendy Lambourne, United States Institute of Peace, 2004
The ending of overt violence via a peace agreement or military victory does not mean the achievement of peace.2 Rather, the ending of violence or a so-called post-conflict situation provides a new set of opportunities that can be grasped or thrown away.3 The international community can play a significant role in either nurturing or undermining this fragile peace building process. Both justice and reconciliation are fundamentally significant goals that need to be addressed in the design of successful post-conflict peace building processes and mechanisms, especially in the aftermath of genocide.
Judy Barsalou, United States Institute of Peace, 2005
The international community now recognizes that accounting for what happened during the conflict, seeking justice for those who were wronged, and promoting peaceful reconciliation among combatants and their broader societies are among the most important needs of countries emerging from violent conflict. While much has been written about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)the psychological distress that individuals may develop following exposure to an upsetting event outside the range of normal human experiencethe role that trauma plays in these processes on the broader societal level is less well understod.
When Forced Migrants Return Home: The Psychosocial Difficulties Returnees Encounter in the Reintegration Process
Tania Ghanem Refugee Studies Centre, 2003
Since the 1980s onwards, voluntary repatriation has been promoted by governments, NGOs and UN agencies as the ultimate solution to refugees displacement. Policy makers, donor countries, practitioners and researchers have typically disregarded, or at least overlooked, the meaning of repatriation from the returnees point of view. It is assumed that beyond the technical aspects of repatriation, the return of forced migrants to their country of origin does not raise any particular challenge to those concerned. A returnee is perceived as the reverse condition of a refugee. While refugees are seen as uprooted and displaced, returnees are considered to be naturally re-rooted and placed back in the right order of things.