In this chapter we try to collect some articles which are highlighting some other aspects of PTSD. These may be the historical context – the origin of PTSD in the “Shell shock” of World War I, as well as some thoughts about the sociological impact or considerations on the aspect of “PTSD – a disease?” or just a normal reaction after catastrophes.
The invention of post-traumatic stress disorder and the social usefulness of a psychiatric category
Derek Summerfield, BMJ/British Mediacl Journal, 2001
This article represents a debate on PTSD with several aspects not often to be seen in a clinical daily routine, with also ethical aspects. Is PTSD always to be seen as a disease? Which impact do sociopolitical and medical aspects have on setting a diagnosis?
The relationship between nightmares and PTSD: The possible role of Image Rescripting in the treatment of PTSD
Sander Krewinkel 2013
One of the most common and distressing symptoms of PTSD are nightmares, which occur in 50 – 70% of PTSD patients. It is suggested that sleep problems are a core feature of PTSD, and that they form a risk factor in PTSD development. Despite the high prevalence of nightmares and the distress they cause, first-line treatment in PTSD does not focus on sleep. However, evidence suggests that sleep problems usually remain as residual symptoms after PTSD is treated.
PTSD and Nightmares
Department of Veterans Affairs
Study showed that nightmares occurred sometimes or more frequently in only 3% of civilian subjects. In contrast, 52% of combat Veterans with PTSD reported that level of nightmares. In other research using normative data, 71% of those with PTSD endorsed nightmares. That figure jumped to 96% of those with PTSD and a comorbid diagnosis of panic disorder.
Correlates and Treatments of Nightmares in Adults
Brant Hasler and Anne Germain 2009
Nightmares, distressing dreams that primarily arise from REM sleep, are prevalent among the general population and even more so among clinical populations. The frequency of nightmares and related nightmare distress are linked to both sleep disturbance and waking psychopathology. Based on the extant evidence, nightmares appear to be particularly relevant to posttraumatic stress disorder, and may even be implicated in its pathophysiology.
What Dreams May Come: Treating the Nightmares of PTSD
Shaili Jain 2013, PLOS.org
A standard part of any psychiatric evaluation involves inquiring about a patient’s sleep. Hidden in the answers that follow the basic question of, “How are you sleeping?” are the clues that are needed to diagnose what is ailing the patient seeking help.
Conflict Transformation – Civil Conflict Management
Berghof Conflict Research, 2010
On this website we find an overview of recent developments in the field of conflict transformation from various perspectives: from academic analysts and practitioners as well as from experts representing different areas of work inside and outside of conflict zones. The site intends to provide continually updated cutting-edge knowledge, experience and lessons learned for those working in the field of transforming violent ethnopolitical conflict.
Usefulness and validity of post-traumatic stress disorder as a psychiatric category
Gillian Mezey, Ian Robbins BMJ, 2001.
Good overview (although some years old and may be therefore in some aspects outdated) on some aspects of the diagnosis of PTSD as a psychiatric diagnosis. Highlights social aspects, the validity of the diagnosis, causes, effects as well as biochemical and anatomical findings. –
Carmelo Vazquez & Pau Perez-Sales 2011. Planning needs and services after collective trauma: should we look for the symptoms of PTSD?
Carmelo Vazquez & Pau Perez-Salesi, 2007
This article presents some research results about the effect of traumatic events on the general population. Highlights how different results can be depending on measurements, definitions and other PTSD criteria used by the researcher.
Shell Shock during World War One
Prof. Joanna Bourke, 2009
This represents an overview by the BBC on “Shell Shock”, here in World War I, the historical development of the term, symptoms, treatment at that time. – BBC World Wars in-depth,