PTSD is considered to be caused either by psychological or physical trauma, more frequently a combination of both. Traumatic events that may cause symptoms of PTSD are f.e. (experiencing or/and witnessing) violent assault, abuse, torture, being a hostage or kidnapping – so we are talking about a wide range of settings from violence in private context up to war, conflict, disaster and catastrophes. Not everyone experiencing such events will develop symptoms.
The most typical symptoms for PTSD are re-experiencing the original trauma through flash-backs and nightmares, avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, increased arousal (as irritation, anger, sleep-disorders), depression and anxiety. There is a wide range in severity of symptoms, some people might even develop “complex PTSD” (with dissociative symptoms)or a kind of “multiple identity”. On this page we have collected some useful links with information about PTSD.