Violence against women, girls, men and boys manifests itself in physical, sexual and psychological forms. Even so, during times of instability, women and girls are disproportionately impacted by sexual and gender-based violence.

COVID-19 special: GBV including domestic violence during lockdown 
(the general intro to this thematic page can be found below)

Messages from the UN Secretary-General António Guterres  on COVID-19 and GBV 
United Nations, 2020
On April 5, 2020, the UN Secretary-General had a video message appealing for peace at home in addition to his appeal for in immediate a global ceasefire global ceasefire to focus on our shared struggle to overcome the pandemic. He said: “I urge all governments to make the prevention and redress of violence against women a key part of their national response plans for COVID-19”. On April 9 he warned that “limited gains in gender equality and women’s rights made over the decades are in danger of being rolled back due to the COVID-19 pandemic” and urged governments to “put women and girls at centre of COVID-19 recovery”.

Q&A: Violence against women during COVID-19
WHO, April 2020
Answers to central questions such as what to do when home is not a safe place for you or when you suspect someone might be abused in their home during the coronavirus lockdown.

COVID-19 and violence against women: What the health sector/system can do
WHO, April 2020
Although the COVID-19 pandemic has placed an immense burden on health systems, including frontline health  workers, there are things that can help mitigate the effects of violence on women and children.

Gender-based violence and COVID-19 webinar
Physicians for Human Rights, May 2020
With Dr. Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Dr. Lori Heise, and Wengechi Wachira
PHR held a webinar conversation addressing how the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the crisis of sexual and gender-based violence and intimate partner violence. The discussion covered the issue in the global context, how existing response programs may be adapted to protect survivors amid restrictions on movement during the pandemic, and possible solutions and policies to protect survivors and prevent and/or reduce violence in the long-term.

Violence Against Women and Girls: Data Collection during COVID-19
UN Women and WHO, April 2020
This is a living document that summarizes principles and recommendations to those planning to embark on data collection on the impact of COVID-19 on violence against women and girls (VAWG). It was informed by the needs and challenges identified by colleagues in regional and country offices and has benefited from their input. It responds to the difficulties of adhering to methodological, ethical and safety principles in the context of the physical distancing and staying at home measures imposed in many countries.

Call for submissions: COVID-19 and the increase of domestic violence against women
UNHCR, 2020
As initial police and hotline reports suggest, domestic violence has already surged in many countries, as measures imposing isolation compel a number of women to be kept at home under the same roof with perpetrators, thus exacerbating women’s vulnerability to domestic violence, including femicides. The risk is aggravated by fewer police interventions; the closure of courts and limited access to justice; the closure of shelters and services for victims, and reduced access to reproductive health services.
Special Rapporteur on violence against women wishes to receive all relevant information on the increase of gender-based violence against women and domestic violence in the context of the COVID-19. All submissions should be sent to as soon as possible, and will be received until 30 June 2020 (more information can be found here).

GBV Case Management and the COVID-19 Pandemic
Gender-Based Violence AoR, 2020
Robyn Yaker and Dorcas Erskine
This note aims to provide practical support to Gender-Based Violence (GBV) practitioners to adapt
GBV case management service delivery models quickly and ethically during the current COVID-19
pandemic. It does not address all aspects of a gendered analysis that are necessary to create a robust
response, nor is it a definitive set of guidelines. Rather, it is designed to be a “living” document, that
will continue to draw upon the expertise of the global community in this new and evolving field. It
assumes that users of this note already understand and are familiar with GBV case management.

Gender Equality and Addressing Gender-based Violence (GBV) and Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Prevention, Protection and Response
UNFPA, March 2020
Core Message: The pandemic will compound existing gender inequalities, and increase risks of gender-based violence. The protection and promotion of the rights of women and girls should be prioritized.

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Family Planning and Ending Gender-based Violence, Female Genital Mutilation and Child Marriage
UNFPA, April 2020
UNFPA aims to achieve three world-changing results by 2030, the deadline for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. These are: Ending unmet need for family planning, ending gender-based violence  including harmful practices such as female genital mutilation and child marriage, and ending all preventable maternal deaths. This analysis shows how the COVID-19 pandemic could critically undermine progress made towards achieving these goals.

Silent solutions available to quarantined survivors of domestic violence
UNFPA, May 2020
Amid a surge in calls for help, counsellors and police are pivoting to new modes of communication in Ukraine. UNFPA is working closely with the police to ensure survivors have access to protection and justice. They want people to know help is available, even under quarantine.

Identifying & Mitigating Gender-based Violence Risks within the COVID-19 Response
Global Protection Cluster and IASC, April 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to present an array of challenges, forcing nearly all types of basic service delivery – including, but not limited to, humanitarian response – to drastically adapt. Given how quickly the outbreak continues to evolve; the variation across contexts in the impact of the disease and the measures being implemented to control its spread; and the lack of documented good practice for delivering aid and services under such conditions, to a large extent the entire international system is learning as we go. As such, this document presents an initial summary of potential GBV risk mitigation actions, based on established good practice, that are starting points to address GBV risks in this unprecedented situation. The GBV risk mitigation actions summarized below are presented in the spirit of collective and iterative problem-solving.

General intro to this thematic page 

In 1993, the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women offered the first official definition of the term “gender-based violence” (GBV): “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.” Gender-based violence has become an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person’s will, and that results from power inequalities that are based on gender roles. Both women and men, as well as girls and boys, are victims of gender-based violence. Even so, around the world, gender-based violence is most often perpetrated against women and girls.  For this reason the term “gender-based violence” is sometimes used interchangeably with the term “violence against women” (VAW).

For many years gender-based violence was not considered to be a part of the international human rights agenda. In the year 2000, when the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1325 on Women, peace and security, this changed. This resolution as well as subsequent resolutions of what became known as the Women, peace and security (WPS) agenda, both demonstrated the importance of GBV and the willingness in the international community to denounce, prohibit and stop GBV.

GBV can occur throughout a person’s lifecycle, and can include everything from early childhood marriage and female genital mutilation (for women and girls), to sexual abuse in times of conflict or in times of peace, domestic violence, legal discrimination and exploitation.

It is extremely important to meet survivors in a respectful and dignified manner.

Below we have collected some useful links about GBV.

On this page you can find articles, websites and documents describing what GBV is as well as general terms and topics used when describing and discussing GBV.

What is gender-based violence?
EIGE, 2017
Gender-based violence is a phenomenon deeply rooted in gender inequality, and continues to be one of the most notable human rights violations within all societies. Gender-based violence is violence directed against a person because of their gender. Both women and men experience gender-based violence but the majority of victims are women and girls.

Definitions of sexual and gender-based violence
IRIN & UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 2004
Part of a report-cluster which covers a wide range of aspects on GBV, offers additional views and definitions.

Facts and figures: Ending violence against women 
UN Women, 2019

General overview on VAW, definitions, terms, facts.

Understanding and addressing violence against women: Sexual violence
World Health Organization, 2012
Sexual violence encompasses acts that range from verbal harassment to forced penetration, and an array of types of coercion, from social pressure and intimidation to physical force.

WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women
World Health Organization, 2005
This study analyses data from 10 countries and sheds new light on the prevalence of violence against women in countries where few data were previously available. It also uncovers the forms and patterns of this violence across different countries and cultures, documenting the consequences of violence for women’s health. No specific focus on GBV in the context of conflict and war.

Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences
UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, 2011
Overview over VAW, also in the context of war and conflict zones, and suggestions of topics in need of further attention.

Shattered lives: Immediate medical care vital for sexual violence victims 
Médecins Sans Frontières, 2009
This booklet includes both an overview over the topic, the necessary procedures concerning the victims/survivors (mostly medical) in the field, as well as explanations by means of presenting the situation in some chosen countries. –

The Egypt economic cost of gender-based violence survey (ECGBVS) 2015
The first national survey measuring prevalence of the different types and forms of gender based violence inflicted on women and girls and its impact on women’s health, and it measures the associated economic costs on their families, society and state as a whole. The survey is expected to guide policy-makers and planners to formulate evidence-based strategies and action plans to combat gender based violence in Egypt.

This represents a collection of manuals and guidelines, which try from different points of view to help field workers to cope with the aftermath of GBV, the traumas and injuries of the survivors. Very often the focus here is aimed at situations during or after war/conflict. Therefore most of these manuals are targeting more practical aspects of fieldwork, as for instance organizing a field camp. Some provide a lot of information about GBV. Some try also to set focus on communication with the survivors, as the topic GBV is a very sensitive one and therefore sometimes difficult to approach in contact with the survivor. The effects of GBV are manifold and always severe. There are physical injuries that may remain, as chronic pain syndromes, muscle and skeleton damages, infections, sexually transmitted diseases. In the recent years it has come more in focus that also the psychological effects are severe, sometimes more serious than the physical ones. To name here PTSD (post traumatic stress disease) in all its varieties, depression, panic disorders.

Mental health and gender-based violence Helping survivors of sexual violence in conflict – a training manual 
HHRI  2016 
This training manual has been developed for helpers who provide assistance and support to women who survive gender-based violence (GBV) and sexual trauma during disasters, conflicts and emergency situations, where access to health professionals with psychological or psychiatric expertise is limited. It is also available in ArabicRussian and Spanish versions. If you would like a hard copy, we will send it to you free of charge. Please send us an e-mail explaining what kind of work you are doing and how you can use it for your work. We will also like to introduce you to our Gender based violence manual – website.

The Inter-Agency Minimum Standards for Gender-Based Violence in Emergencies Programming
UNFPA, 2019
Gender-based violence (GBV) is a horrifying reality and human rights violation for women and girls globally. During emergencies, the risk of violence, exploitation and abuse is heightened.
At the same time, national systems, including health and legal systems, and community and social support networks weaken. This breakdown of systems can reduce access to health services, including sexual and reproductive health services, and legal services, leading to an environment of impunity in which perpetrators are not held to account. When systems and services are disrupted or destroyed, women and girls face even higher risk of human rights violations such as sexual violence, intimate partner violence, exploitation and abuse, child marriage, denial of resources and harmful traditional practices. GBV has significant and long-lasting impacts on the health, and psychosocial and economic well-being of women and girls, and their families and communities.

Working with gender-based violence survivors: Reference Training Manual for Frontline Staff
UNRWA, 2012
UNRWA prioritises gender equality and the empowerment of women, and over the course of its existence has achieved much success. UNRWA is now building on this work to address a difficult but important gender issue: Gender Based Violence (GBV). GBV blights the lives of too many Palestine refugees and exists as a major obstacle to many women, girls and boys achieving their full potential. In order to achieve its human development goals, UNRWA must respond to this serious problem.

Guidelines for Integrating Gender- based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action: Reducing risk, promoting resilience
and aiding recovery

Inter-Agency Standing Committee, 2015
Humanitarian action is most effective when it focuses not only on meeting the immediate needs of those most affected, but also on protecting the rights and long-term wellbeing of the most vulnerable at every stage. Gender-based violence is among the greatest protection challenges individuals, families and communities face during humanitarian emergencies. Accounts of horrific sexual violence in conflict situations—especially against women and girls—have captured public attention in recent years. These violations and less recognized forms of gender-based violence intimate partner violence, child marriage and female genital mutilation—are also being committed with disturbing frequency. Natural disasters and other emergencies exacerbate the violence and diminish means of protection. And gender-based violence not only violates and traumatizes its survivors, it also undermines the resilience of their societies, making it harder to recover and rebuild.

How to support survivors of gender-based violence when a GBV actor is not available in your area
Inter-Agency Standing Committee
The Pocket Guide and its supporting materials provide all humanitarian practitioners with information on: how to support a survivor of gender-based violence (GBV), who discloses their experience of GBV with you, and in a context where there is no GBV actor (including a GBV
referral pathway or a GBV focal point) available. Also available: Background note and User guide.

Strengthening Health System Responses to Genderbased Violence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
This resource package aims to strengthen the knowledge and skills of health care professionals to understand GBV, to identify patients who have experienced GBV and to provide survivors with appropriate care, support and referrals. It seeks to provide trainers with a ready-made and user-friendly tool to deliver trainings to health care professionals in the EECA region, packaging the comprehensive background information included in part I into ten practical training modules.

SGBV Prevention and Response
UNHCR 2016
The Training Package is designed to help facilitators deliver introductory, interactive training on the prevention of and response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Facilitators should have field-experience working on SGBV prevention and response, mainstreaming gender equality, working with communities affected by displacement, and be familiar with UNHCR’s approach to addressing SGBV.

Mental health and psychosocial support for conflict-related sexual violence: principles and interventions
UNAction 2011
This is a summary of the report from a meeting on Responding to the psychosocial and mental health needs of sexual violence survivors in conflict-affected settings, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), with United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), on behalf of United Nations Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict (UNAction).

A practical approach to gender based violence – a programme guide for health care providers & managers 
UN Population Fund 2001
Manual (74 p.) which tries to provide health care providers with the necessary information about GBV. This manual has some focus on how to approach a difficult topic to talk about, as GBV represents for most of the survivors, in a psychological way. It tries to arouse sensibility and improved interviewing skills.

Guidance for mediators: Addressing conflict-related sexual violence in ceasefire and peace agreements 
UN Department of Political Affairs 2012
This guidance offers advice to aid the mediator and his/her team in addressing a frequently used method and tactic of warfare: conflict-related sexual violence. It provides strategies for including this security and peace building concern within ceasefire and security arrangements and in framing provisions for post-conflict justice and reparations.

Handbook for Coordinating GBV interventions in humanitarian settings 
Gender-based Violence Area of Responsibility Working Group 2010
A quick-reference tool that provides practical guidance on leadership roles, key responsibilities and specific actions to be taken when establishing and maintaining a GBV coordination mechanism in an emergency. The handbook is based on the IASC Guidelines for GBV- Interventions in Humanitarian Settings (2005) and also takes into account lessons learned, good practices and emerging resources related to GBV coordination within the cluster approach/humanitarian reform process as well as relatively recent global initiatives on GBV in emergencies.

Gender-based Violence Tools Manual
RHRC 2004
This manual (207 p.) tries to cover most of administrative and organizational considerations required to establish help. Lots of form-sheets useful to organize help practically. Form-sheets for structured interviews etc. “For Assessment & Program Design, Monitoring & Evaluation in conflict-affected settings”.

Facilitator’s Guide – Training Manual for Multisectoral and Interagency Prevention and Response to Gender-based Violence 
RHRC 2004
This manual includes and provides information and (interactive) training to create workshops and seminars, for planning interventions to address GBV in displaced settings around the world. Most focus on administrative and practical issues, some information about mental (psychological) damage after GBV.

Camp management toolkit 
The 2015 edition of the Camp Management Toolkit represents the most comprehensive guidance for those engaged in camp responses to displacement. The Toolkit provides guidelines that serve as practical support for national authorities, national and international humanitarian actors, as well as internally displaced persons and refugees involved in camp management. There is a separate chapter on GBV.

Clinical management of rape survivors 
UNHCR 2004
This guide describes best practices in the clinical management of people who have been raped in emergency situations. It is intended for adaptation to each situation, taking into account national policies and practices, and availability of materials and drugs. This guide is intended for use by qualified health care providers (health coordinators, medical doctors, clinical officers, midwives and nurses) in developing protocols for the management of rape survivors in emergencies, taking into account available resources, materials, and drugs, and national policies and procedures. It can also be used in planning care services and in training health care providers. The document includes detailed guidance on the clinical management of women, men and children who have been raped. It does not include advice on standard care of wounds or injuries or on psychological counselling, although these may be needed as part of comprehensive care for someone who has been raped.

Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons 
UNHCR 2003
Guidelines with an overview over the topic GBV, with some considerations about prevention and response.

Checklist for Action – Prevention & Response to Gender-Based Violence in Displaced Settings 
RHRC 2004
Short checklist approaching mainly practical considerations how to cope with the aftermath of GBV and the survivors.

Researcher Trauma, Safety and Sexual Violence Research 
SVRI 2010
Briefing paper- Working and researching with victims of sexual violence can be traumatic to the researcher and can result in secondary traumatic stress or vicarious traumatisation. This paper explores the experiences of sexual violence researchers from different countries, identifying the issues that traumatized them and the protective strategies they found effective.

Guidelines for medico-legal care for victims of sexual violence
WHO 2003
Solid manual (154 p.) which provides with knowledge about GBV and mostly focuses on necessary settings, but strongly practical (f.e. how to physically examine, about documentation, poorly focus on counseling). –

Trauma Treatment Manual
Ed Schmookler 2001
A guide in text-form to raise understanding for trauma reactions that could also be used for working with GBV survivors, and to improve communication-skills for field workers helping trauma-survivors, communication examples for approach.

Preventing Gender-based Violence, Building Livelihoods Guidance and Tools for Improved Programming 
Women’s Refugee Commission 2011
New livelihood strategies can increase the risk of gender-based violence (GBV). Women often have no safety net; they usually flee with few resources and little preparation and may become separated from or lose family members. A lack of access to economic opportunities while displaced often forces women and girls to resort to harmful measures to survive.

Managing Gender-based Violence Programmes in Emergencies e-learning course.
UNFPA and World Education, Inc. 2011
Iin consultation with a wide range of GBV experts and humanitarian and development actors worldwide, the goal of this course is to improve the knowledge of programme managers to better address the issue of gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies. 2011

Passing the test. The experience of Liberian school students.
Judy L. Postmus and Rebecca Davis, 2014
Gender Based Violence (GBV) in and around schools is now widely recognized as a serious global phenomenon that is a fundamental violation of human rights and a major barrier to the realization of all children’s rights to education.

Here we present the framework for working with human rights and gender-based violence, such as United Nations resolutions, reports and examples of good practice. In response to persistent advocacy from civil society the UN Security Council has  adopted different resolutions on “Women, Peace and Security” – Security Councils Resolution 1325 (2000); 1820 (2009); 1888 (2009); 1889 (2010) 1960 (2011) 2106 (2013); 2122 (2013), 2242 (2015), 2467 and 2493 (2019). The nine resolutions should be seen together under a single umbrella, as they comprise the Women, Peace and Security international policy framework. They guide work to promote and protect the rights of women in conflict and post-conflict situations. Additionally, as binding Security Council resolutions, they should be implemented by all Member States and relevant actors, including UN system entities and parties to conflict.

Women, Peace and Security international policy framework – the resolutions
Peace Women, 2019
UN Security Council Resolutions, with overview and insight to each of the ten resolutions, useful to check the “speak local” links.

UN-Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security
UN, 2000
Essential and fundamental UN-resolution about that topic – “impact of armed conflict on women and girls”, with proposals how to realize targets.

Strengthening the protection of Women from Torture 
UNHCR, 2008
Report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture and other cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment, A/HRC/7/3, 15 January 2008. The term “torture” seen in connection with “violence against women”, and some conclusions to be drawn international, with implications on justice, reparation, other (human) rights.

Indicators on Violence Against Women and State Response 
Human Rights Council, 2008
Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences /

‘The Maputo Protocol’ – Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa 
Equality Now, 2021
One of the world’s most comprehensive and progressive women’s human rights instruments, the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa (‘the Maputo Protocol’) was adopted by Heads of State and Government in Maputo, Mozambique on 11 July 2003.

Women’s Rights are Human Rights
UN, 2014
This publication provides an introduction to women’s human rights, beginning with the main provisions in international human rights law and going on to explain particularly relevant concepts for fully understanding women’s human rights.

Nairobi declaration on women`s and girl`s right to a remedy and reparation
International Federation for Human Rights, 2007
Conclusion/declaration as a result of an international meeting on “Women’s and Girls’ Right to a Remedy and Reparation”, held in Nairobi  2007. Participants have been women’s rights advocates and activists, as well as survivors of sexual violence in situations of conflict, from Africa, Asia, Europe, Central, North and South America. Here`s the focus on remedy and reparation for the survivors of GBV.

Sustainable Development Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls 
UN Women, 2017
Gender-based violence seen in different contexts, with the goal to present some of the most important topics: in combination with poverty, reproductive health, HIV, in conflict situations. Issues and challenges with all these topics. –

Gender based violence and the law
Jeni Klugman, Georgetown University, World Development Report, 2017
The Sustainable Development Goals include a specific target to “eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres.” A recent special series of The Lancet on addressing violence against women provides an excellent overview of the current evidence, and highlights that while growing international recognition creates opportunities for renewed government commitment, solutions will not be quick or easy.

Thematic Prosecution of International Sex Crimes 
FICHL, Morten Bergsmo ed., 2012
Deals with the topic of thematic prosecution of core international crimes. Its focus is on international sex crimes. It is important to justify the singling out of a narrow range of criminality for prosecution, whether in internationalized or national criminal jurisdictions. Thematic prosecutions should be explained to the public. Absent proper justification, the thematic prosecution of core international crimes is likely to generate increasing controversy. This timely publication will hopefully raise awareness and generate discussion about the possibilities and challenges of the use of thematic prosecution among those working in criminal justice agencies, academia, civil society, and the media (474 pages).

Changing the Criminal Justice System’s Response to Sexual Assault/Gender Based Violence in Canada 
ISP EMPLOYMENT LAW, Jennifer Canas, 2017
Trauma Informed Sexual Assault Investigation and Adjudication Training. Justice, for survivors of sexual assault/gender based violence, demands that Trauma-Informed Sexual Assault training and education about the impact of trauma on the brain, complexities and dynamics underlying a survivor’s response to such assault, the myths and stereotypes of sexual assault, and including investigative/questioning skills be provided within the whole of the criminal justice system across Canada, otherwise we will continue to see justice denied.

Here you can find information about gender-based violence in war and conflict.

Conflict-related sexual violence: Report of the United Nations Secretary-General
UN, 2019
The present report, which covers the period from January to December 2018, is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2106 (2013), in which the Council requested me to report annually on the implementation of resolutions 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), and 1960 (2010) and to recommend strategic actions.

Report of the United Nations Secretary-General on conflict-related sexual violence
UN, 2020
The present report, which covers the period from January to December 2019, is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2467 (2019), in which the Council requested me to report on the implementation of resolutions 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009), 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013).

Statement: Placing victims at the centre of investigations spurs justice for survivors of sexual violence in conflict
UN Women, 2019
Joint message from Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Executive Director of UN Women, and Nina Suomalainen, Executive Director of Justice Rapid Response, for the International Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict (19 June)

Specialized investigation into sexual violence in conflict is essential for justice, experts say
UN Women, 2019
On the sidelines of the UN Security Council open debate on sexual violence in conflict, experts came together to discuss what it takes to achieve justice for conflict-related sexual and gender-based crimes, through investigation and documentation. Nearly 20 years since the adoption of the UN Security Council resolution 1325, which calls on all parties in conflict to uphold women’s rights and respond to violations, impunity for conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence continues to undermine international peace and security. “When I interviewed survivors, they said ‘we want justice,’” said Antonia Mulvey, former gender advisor to the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar. “Many of them cannot read or write, but they know what justice is, and they wanted accountability”.

Mental health and psychosocial support for conflict-related sexual violence: 10 myths
World Health Organization, 2012
Sexual assault is among the most severe stressors that survivors may experience in
their lifetimes. Preventing sexual violence and addressing its consequences requires
substantial attention and resources. Conflict-related sexual violence is part of a continuum of violence, particularly against women and girls.

Ending sexual violence in Darfur: An advocacy agenda
Refugees International, 2007
This booklet gives a great overview of the impact of sexual violence under the conflict in Darfur. With a focus on the impact on rape, and emerging issues as protection and health response.

Sexual Violence and its Consequences among Displaced Persons in Darfur and Chad 
Human Rights Watch, 2005
Presenting the situation in Darfur and Chad, with some focus on the social, psychological, medical/clinical consequences of VAW. Short presentation of preferable, necessary standards for response and caretaking.

Promising democracy imposing theocracy – Gender-Based Violence and the US war on Iraq
MADRE, 2007
This report highlights the situation for women in Iraq, and the role the US and the US military have played in establishing the existing situation.

Gender-based violence in the conflict-affected regions of Ukraine
Ukrainian Centre for Social Reforms 2015
Gender-based violence (GBV) is regarded among the most common human rights violations, occurring all over the world. According to empirical evidence, GBV disproportionately affects women because of the unequal distribution of powers and resources between women and men, women’s economic vulnerability, and their dependent position in the family.

A psychosocial model of healing from the traumas of ethnic cleansing the case of Bosnia
Marta Cullberg Weston, The women to women Foundation 2001
This article is about the situation of traumatized women in Bosnia, and how to help.

Broadening perspectives on trauma and recovery: a socio-interpersonal view of PTSD
European Journal of  Psychotraumatology 2016
The present paper elaborates and extends the social–interpersonal framework model of PTSD. This was developed to complement other intrapersonally focused models of PTSD, which emphasize alterations in an individual’s memory, cognitions, or neurobiology. Four primary reasons for broadening the perspective from the individual to the interpersonal–societal contexts are discussed. The three layers of the model (social affects, close relationships, and culture and society) are outlined.

Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons
UNHCR 2003
This is a solid long (168 s.) guideline about GBV. It includes an overview of GBV, guiding principles, considerations on preventing sexual and gender-based violence, as well as thoughts about responding to GBV (health, psychosocial, legal aspects).

Take five: Uncovering the untold stories of sexual and gender-based violence in conflict
UNWomen 2017
The experience from the ad-hoc tribunals has shown that recognition in the form of a judgment, acknowledging the experiences of survivors and the responsibility of perpetrators, is valuable and can help with healing on a number of levels. With the first few reparation orders at the International Criminal Court, we are starting to see how reparations for such crimes can and should benefit survivors.

Perhaps male rape is one of the most hidden atrocities of war. This may be so because it is denied or kept secret, given that both the perpetrator and the victim enter into a form of “conspiracy of silence”. However, when the stories are unveiled, those who have been victims to these crimes risk losing the support of those around them. Male survivors of sexual violence are often disdained and marginalized by their own communities. In patriarchal societies, a man who has been exposed to this type of violence may be seen as a “woman”, and given stereotypical gender-role definitions; no man is allowed to be vulnerable.

MHHRI acknowledges that women are more frequent targets of this horrific crime. But we also wish to present the evidence that sexual violence against men is becoming a more frequent occurrence in the context of war and conflict. Therefore, it must be addressed as a serious human rights violation, and one with devastating mental health consequences.

Male victims of sexual violence: war’s silent sufferers 
Allan Ngari, Institute for Security Studies (ISS) 2016
Sexual violence is a tactic of war, used to humiliate, dominate and instill fear. It is also increasingly being used as a tactic of terrorism. While the focus has largely been on women and girls as victims of sexual violence, boys and men are equally at risk. Sexual violence against men and boys takes on a range of heinous acts, including anal and oral rape, genital torture, castration and coercion to rape others. Many of these acts are seen as emasculating, and while many male victims are willing to give accounts of what they witnessed, they are less likely to express what they themselves had experienced in conflict.

Sexual Violence against Men and Boys – a collection of resources
Women´s Refugee Commission (WRC)
The Women’s Refugee Commission’s work with men and boys incorporates feminist principles that prioritize accountability to women and girls. Sexual violence is a risk facing all refugees—women, girls, men, boys, and people with diverse sexual orientation, gender identities and gender expressions like lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) individuals. In humanitarian settings, services sensitive to the unique needs of all sexual violence survivors are limited. Without appropriate treatment, survivors may suffer harmful effects of sexual violence, including physical and psychological trauma.

Identifying and Responding to Urban Refugees’ Risks of Gender-Based Violence Men and Boys, Including Male Survivors 
Women´s Refugee Commission (WRC) 2016
Throughout 2015, WRC conducted research in urban settings, the first phase of a multi-year project to improve the humanitarian community’s understanding of and response to GBV risks in urban contexts. Quito, Ecuador; Beirut, Lebanon; Kampala, Uganda; and Delhi, India, were chosen because they are host to diverse refugee populations, have different policy environments for refugees, and are at different stages of humanitarian response. The project looked separately at the GBV risks of different urban refugee subpopulations: women; children and adolescents; LGBTI individuals; persons with disabilities; and male survivors of sexual violence.

“More Than One Million Pains”: Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys on the Central Mediterranean Route to Italy
Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC) 2019
Every year since 2014, tens of thousands of refugees and migrants have traveled the central Mediterranean route to Italy, one of the most active and dangerous migration passageways in the world. Along the way, many experience kidnapping, exploitation, extortion, and enslavement. Large numbers die in the desert, are confined to hellish detention centers in Libya, or drown at sea. Litle is known about the men and boys who undertake this journey. These knowledge gaps are of concern, given that an estimated 87.5 percent of refugees and migrants who have entered Italy via the central Mediterranean route since 2016 are men and boys, the latter of whom are largely unaccompanied.

Sexual torture of Palestinian men by Israeli authorities 
Daniel J.N. Weishut 2015
In the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, arrests and imprisonment of Palestinian men in their early adulthood are common practice. The Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (PCATI) collected thousands of testimonies of Palestinian men allegedly tortured or ill-treated by Israeli authorities.
There are many types of torture, sexual torture being one of them. This study is based on the PCATI database during 2005-2012, which contains 60 cases – 4% of all files in this period – with testimonies of alleged sexual torture or ill-treatment.

“We keep it in our heart” Sexual violence against men and boys in the Syria crisis. 
Dr. Sarah Chynoweth, UNHCR 2017
This exploratory study examined sexual violence against men and boys in the Syria crisis and their access to services in Jordan, Lebanon, and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). In addition to a review of the literature and an online survey completed by 33 key informants, in-country data collection was undertaken in October 2016. Key informant interviews with 73 humanitarian personnel from 34 agencies were conducted as well as 21 focus group discussions with 196 refugees (82 pages).

Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse 
Christopher Anderson, American Psychological Association 2015
Common Types of and Prevalence Estimates for Exposure to Traumatic Stressors. Within the U.S. as many as 1 in 4 males will experience some form of sexual abuse during their lifetime. The number of males who are sexually abused during military service is greater than the number of female service members. As many as 50% of the children who are sex trafficked in the US are males.

Male Rape Victims in the Lord’s Resistance Army war and the Conflict in Eastern Congo 
Linda Lanyero Omona, International Institute for Social Studies 2014
Sexual violence against men in Uganda is an underreported crime. Sexual violence against men is considered taboo in most cultures. It is an issue not talked about because many consider the rape of men nearly impossible. It is clear that men have also been victims of rape in armed conflicts all over the world. The laws that define rape should be revised to include men and boys as victims of rape.

Working with men and boy survivors of sexual and gender-based violence in forced displacement 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 2012
Refugee men and boys can be subjected to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Survivors have specific health, psychosocial, legal, and safety needs, but often find it hard to discuss their experience and access the support they need. The objectives of this note are to emphasise that programmes on SGBV need to include men and boys and to provide guidance on how to access survivors, facilitate reporting, provide protection and deliver essential medical, legal and social services.

10 Insights from Discussions with Boys and Young Men Traveling to Italy on Sexual Violence
Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC) 2015
n October 2018, two researchers traveled to Rome and Sicily. We spoke with 52 young men and boys who had traveled to Italy from across Africa and the Middle East. We also talked to 63 social workers, guardians, doctors, psychologists, and other service providers. This document summarizes the key findings from our trip, especially regarding sexual violence.

SGBV Prevention and Response
UNHCR, 2016
The Training Package is designed to help facilitators deliver introductory, interactive training on the prevention of and response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Facilitators should have field-experience working on SGBV prevention and response, mainstreaming gender equality, working with communities affected by displacement, and be familiar with UNHCR’s approach to addressing SGBV.
MODULE 7 Working with Men and Boy Survivors of SGBV In this training session participants explore the types of SGBV inflicted on men and boys, and the power and gender dynamics behind these forms of violence. Participants identify the challenges that hinder men and boy survivors from reporting and seeking support, emphasizing the taboos and stigma associated with SGBV against males. The session then addresses the specific needs of male survivors and explores the steps UNHCR can take to ensure SGBV response programmes are inclusive of men and boys.

In some refugee groups, more than one in three men are said to have suffered sexual violence 
Katie, Nguyen, Thomson Reuters Foundation 2014
Sexual violence against men is one of the least told aspects of war. Yet men and boys are victims too of abuse that is frequently more effective at destroying lives and tearing communities apart than guns alone. It can take the form of anal and oral rape, genital torture, castration, gang rape, sexual slavery and the forced rape of others. It is so taboo that few survivors have the courage to tell their story. Besides feeling ashamed and afraid of being ostracised, many victims dare not challenge powerful myths about male rape in their cultures, experts say. A common belief is that a man who is raped becomes a woman.

Hope in the Shadows: Male Victims of Sexual Assault in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 
Miya Cain, Harvard Kennedy School. 2014
As a result of ongoing conflict, poverty and instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congolese men and women have been subjected to various forms of sexual violence by warring rebel militia, government forces, and noncombatants. Most humanitarian aid, money, and international attention supports female victims of sexual violence, but male victims are largely left in the shadows. Simplified narratives of gender violence often define men as “villains” and women as “victims.” This narrative aligns with traditional conceptions of gender roles; however, the oversimplification often leaves male victims overlooked by policy responses designed to address sexual violence.

UNHCR issues guidelines on protection of male rape victims 
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 2012
Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against men and boys has generally been mentioned as a footnote in reports. There are no detailed statistics on the number of male victims of SGBV but, the phenomenon is increasingly being recognized as a protection concern in conflict and forced displacement situations. Despite the prevailing taboo, there had been progress over the last decade in reporting of incidents.

Access to Justice for Male Victims of Sexual Violence; Focus on Refugees in Uganda 
Meg McMahon, Legal Aid Board.
Sexual violence against men has garnered increasing publicity in recent years but still remains extremely under-researched and under-reported. This paper will examine the challenges facing male victims of sexual violence. The paper will look at the broad international framework, including definitions of sexual violence and international jurisprudence in the area as well as generally looking at how the term sexual or gender-based violence has come to be associated with violence against women (.

The rape of men: the darkest secret of war 
Will Storr, The Guardian 2011
Sexual violence is one of the most horrific weapons of war, an instrument of terror used against women. Yet huge numbers of men are also victims. In this harrowing report, Will Storr travels to Uganda to meet traumatised survivors, and reveals how male rape is endemic in many of the world’s conflicts. Of all the secrets of war, there is one that is so well kept that it exists mostly as a rumour. It is usually denied by the perpetrator and his victim. Governments, aid agencies and human rights defenders at the UN barely acknowledge its possibility.

Male Rape and Human Rights 
Lara Stemple,  Columbia University 2009
For the last few decades, the prevailing approach to sexual violence in international human rights instruments has focused virtually exclusively on the abuse of women and girls. In the meantime, men have been abused and sexually humiliated during situations of armed conflict. Childhood sexual abuse of boys is alarmingly common.

Masculinity and Experiences of Sexual Violence: Case study of Male Congolese Refugees in Kampala Uganda
Jacqueline Mukasa Nassaka ISS 2012.
Uganda, like any other country, receives refugees yearly from its neighbors. Among the issues reported occasionally are incidences related to sexual violence. These issues are generally ignored without taking into consideration the different aspects of sustainable development.

Gender equality cannot be achieved without the involvement of men and boys. But change is slowly taking place, and men are increasingly working alongside women to support gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.

Engaging Boys and Men in GBV Prevention and Reproductive Health in Conflict and Emergency-Response Settings
The ACQUIRE Project, USAID 2008
This module is for personnel working in conflict and other emergency-response settings who are interested in engaging boys and men in gender-based violence prevention and reproductive health. This includes those managing or staffing reproductive health, HIV and AIDS, and/or GBV prevention projects in emergency-response settings or conflict zones. Specific audiences to consider targeting are NGO project managers, field staff, health sector coordinators, health promoters, donor representatives, local representatives of ministries of health, and community liaisons working for UNCHR or other U.N. agencies (pdf. 60 pages).

Partnering with men to end gender-based violence practices that work from Eastern Europe and Central Asia
UNFPA 2009
This publication is about five UNFPA-supported projects in South and Eastern Europe that have made monumental strides in engaging men in the prevention of gender-based violence. The people responsible for these projects are on the cutting edge of development efforts, yet they often feel they are fighting an uphill battle. Violence remains pervasive in the region, with estimates showing that one woman in three still experiences abuse in her lifetime.1 Attitudes and practices that perpetuate violence against women are accepted as norms, and countless crimes go unpunished (pdf, 108 pages).

Working with Men and Boys to Prevent Gender-based Violence: Principles, Lessons Learned, and Ways Forward
Dean Peacock and Gary Barker 2014
Since the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, national governments and UN agencies have steadily adopted and implemented policies and community-based interventions intended to change social norms about gender and masculinities. As cross-pollination happens across countries and regions, work with men and boys for gender equality has become more complex, ambitious, and visible, generating important synergies and successes, and some resistance. This article examines the rationale for that work; describes key findings from multicountry studies about the relationship between notions of masculinities and men’s gender-related practices; documents key principles guiding much gender equality work with men and boys; identifies emerging strategies and proposes key next steps to increase the scale, impact, and sustainability of gender transformative work with men and boys.

Engaging Men and Boys in Refugee Settings to Address Sexual and Gender Based Violence 
UN Women, Women’s Commission & Sonk 2008
A workshop report prepared by Caroline Aasheim, Dale Buscher, Dean Peacock and Lynn Ngugi
Engaging men and boys has emerged as a vital strategy for ending gender based violence, including in refugee and post-conflict settings. While prevention and response activities are essential, the humanitarian community and host country service providers understand that they must move beyond simply addressing each individual case of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and begin to address the societal, cultural, economic, religious and political systems that either perpetuate or allow for violence based on gender to continue (pdf. 28 pages).

UNFPA – Engaging men & boys
United Nations Population Fund 2018
UNFPA works with men and boys around the world to advance gender equality – with benefits for all. These programmes are encouraging men and boys to abandon harmful stereotypes, embrace respectful, healthy relationships, and support the human rights of all people, everywhere.

Mobilising Men in Practice  – Challenging sexual and gender-based violence in institutional settings 
Greig, Alan with Edström, Jerker 2012
By immersing the participants in a programme of dialogue and action that challenge the inherent nature of male privileges and power structures in society – government, academia and workplace – the men learned a lot about themselves and how they can begin to address inequities. By providing step-by-step tools, discussion topics and stories about the Mobilising Men participants, the publication acts as a guide for activists to instil change in institutions that impede women’s progress through both subtle and obvious barriers (pdf, 114 pages).

Masculinities & Engaging Men: Training Manual to end GBV
African Women’s Development and Communication Network 2013
The overall goal of the Men to Men Programme is to create a critical mass of African men who are able to influence communities, organizations and the public to believe in and practise gender equality as a norm. The manual on masculinities provides rich content for trainers and facilitation tips for each session. The manual is meant to enhance men’s knowledge on the link between masculinities, GBV and the spread of HIV/AIDS, and equip men with practical skills for training other men on combating GBV and the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Gender-Based Violence: An advocacy guide for grassroots activists in Burundi
CARE’s Great Lakes Advocacy Initiative (GLAI) 2012
This guide was developed as a resource for communitybased activists who are working to eliminate gender-based violence in their communities. Often, activists have several roles. Sometimes activists provide case management, and sometimes they educate their communities. Some activists do both. The aims is to create an environment that promotes safe, peaceful and productive families and communities and to envision a Burundi that is free from gender-based violence.

Female genital mutilation – FGM – represents a serious impact both to the physical and mental health of the affected women and girls. It is part of reality for many women around the world, to consider as quite severe not least because it is furthermore seen as “normal” in many ways of many of the involved persons. So it represents a major challenge to face because of the many background aspects which are to consider.

Female genital mutilation – fact sheet
WHO 2017
Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

Policy Brief: Enabling Environments for Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation
UNFPA 2020
The policy brief assesses the extent to which UN Member States and their partners across different country contexts have implemented a comprehensive and multisectoral approach in their efforts to prevent and respond to female genital mutilation. It also summarizes the impact of COVID-19 on female genital mutilation prevention and response programmes. It, additionally, presents a framework for supporting broader accountability at country level around these dimensions and provides strategic guidance to lawmakers, policymakers and all stakeholders in taking forward their commitment to adopt a comprehensive and multisectoral approach in addressing female genital mutilation. 

Care of girls and women living with female genital mutilation – A clinical handbook
WHO 2018
This publication is that it distils the evidence-informed recommendations into a practical and user-friendly tool for everyday use by health-care providers. It covers a wide range of health topics in nine chapters, ranging from basic knowledge and
communication skills to management of a range of complications. Moreover, it describes how to offer first-line mental and sexual health support as part of comprehensive care to address multiple aspects of women’s health and well-being.

Female Genital Mutilation Hurts Women and Economies
WHO 2020
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is not only a catastrophic abuse of human rights that significantly harms the physical and mental health of millions of girls and women; it is also a drain on a country’s vital economic resources,” said Dr Ian Askew, Director of WHO’s Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research. “More investment is urgently needed to stop FGM and end the suffering it inflicts.”

A statistical exploration on female genital mutilation.
Solid long collection of data, facts and statistics. Socio-economic and demographic facts, underlying causes and attitudes, conclusions and recommendations.

Primer: Conducting Public Inquiries to Eliminate Female Genital Mutilation
UNFPA 2020
A public inquiry is an exploration of a systemic human rights problem where the public is invited to play a key role. It lends national human rights institutions, who have a central role to play in advocacy to eliminate female genital mutilation, a powerful tool to engage and educate the public, analyse a systemic human rights violation and advance elimination. 

Empowering Girls and Women to Lead Change

This report shows the many ways that the Joint Programme is empowering girls and women to lead change. Creating an enabling environment through policies and legislation, providing access to an essential package of services, and shifting social and gender norms through community-driven efforts are critical in accelerating the elimination of female genital mutilation. But equally as important is empowering girls and women as agents of change.

Ending female genital mutilation/cutting lessons from a decade of progress 
Population Reference Bureau 2013
This review will focus on a few of the key successful approaches and interventions that have had a significant impact on abandonment, identified with guidance from the experts interviewed. This report pulls together the lessons learned from the last decade and crafts a roadmap for how to strengthen programs moving forward.

Impact of psychological disorders after female genital mutilation among Kurdish girls in Northern Iraq
Jan Ilhan Kizilhan – Eur. J. Psychiat.Vol. 25, N.° 2, (92-100) 2011
This study investigated the mental health status of young girls after genital mutilation in Northern Iraq. Although experts assume that circumcised girls are more prone to psychiatric illnesses than non-circumcised girls, little research has been conducted to confirm this claim. For the purpose of this study, it was assumed that female genital mutilation is connected with a high rate of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD).

UNFPA-UNICEF joint programme on female genital mutilation-cutting: accelerating change 
The UNFPA/UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting 2017
UNFPA and UNICEF jointly lead the largest global programme to accelerate the abandonment of female genital mutilation, it highlights some of the achievements, challenges and best practices for the abandonment of FGM/C and emphasizes the importance of continued partnerships with governments, media, civil society organizations and religious leaders.

“Human trafficking” is called the practice of people being tricked, lured, coerced or otherwise removed from their home or country, then forced to work with no or low payment, or on terms which are highly exploitative. The practice is considered to be the trade or commerce of people, which has many features of slavery, and which is illegal in most countries. The victims of human trafficking are used in a variety of situations, including prostitution and forced labor and other forms of involuntary servitude. The sale of babies and children for adoption or other purposes is also considered to be trafficking. A wide variety of crimes and human rights abuses are associated with trafficking. We have focused here on human trafficking concerning women and girls, as this represents a part of Gender-based Violence.

The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols
UN 2000
This is considered to be the main international instrument in the fight against transnational organized crime.

The National Human Trafficking Prosecution – Best Practices Guide
National District Attorneys Association (NDAA) 2020
This is a living document highlighting current best practices in the prosecution of human trafficking.

”Toolkit” to Combat Trafficking in Persons
UNODOC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2010
“Electronic toolkit”, with a solid collection of assessments and links, intended to provide guidance, recommend resources, facilitate the sharing of knowledge. Legal and legislative framework, law enforcement and prosecution, victim assistance and prevention, etc.

Practical guideline for the Identification of Victims of Human Trafficking in Europe
IFRC, 2019
It is fundamental in an emergency situation to be able to quickly recognise cases of trafficking. This STEP guideline includes clear, practical information and tools to support frontline officers in carrying out identification in their daily operations. 

Trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation in the Americas
PAHO Pan-american health organization 2001
Overview over the topic, seen in context with human rights, health, legal framework etc.

Poverty, gender and human trafficking in Sub-Sahara
Thanh-Dam Truong, UNESCO 2006
“Re-thinking best practices in migration management”, solid article (141 p.) which tries to unpack the interconnectedness between human trafficking and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a critical analysis of migration processes in relation to human rights abuse.

Psychosocial support to groups of victims of human trafficking in transit situations.
IOM 2004
This publication highlights the importance of considering the psychosocial approach.

The Relationship of Trauma to Mental Disorders Among Trafficked and Sexually Exploited Girls and Women
Mazeda Hossain et al. 2010
Concludes that the need for mental health care for trafficked persons by highlighting the importance of assessing severity and duration of trafficking-related abuses and need for adequate recovery time. Therapies for anxiety, PTSD, and mood disorders in low-resource settings should be evaluated.Some articles (online links) collecting considerations about trafficking.

Trafficking of women
UN – Women 
Some articles (online links) collecting considerations about trafficking.

Situation Report – Trafficking in human beings in the EU  
Europol 2016
Report about trafficking human beings (THB) in Europe. It talks about the facilitating factors, the criminal networks that are
involved, the exploitation associated with THB, the effects of THB, and and the steps taken to combat THB.

Male and LGBT survivors of sexual violence in conflict situations: a realist review of health interventions in low-and middle-income countries
Kiss, L., Quinlan-Davidson, M., Pasquero, L. et al., 2020
Conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) against women and girls has been the subject of increasing research and scholarship. Less is known about the health of men, boys and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and other gender non-binary persons who survive CRSV. This paper is the first systematic realist review on medical, mental health, and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions that focus on male and LGBT survivors of CRSV. The review explores the gender differences in context, mechanisms and outcomes that underpin interventions addressing the health and psychosocial wellbeing of male and LGBT survivors.

Still a blind spot: The protection of LGBT persons during armed conflict and other situations of violence
Margalit, A. (PhD), 2018
This article draws attention to the situation of LGBT persons during armed conflict. Subjected to violence and discrimination outside the context of armed conflict, the latter aggravates their vulnerability and exposure to various abuses. Despite important progress made with respect to their protection under human rights law, a similar effort is largely absent from the international humanitarian law discourse. This article accordingly highlights some of the norms and challenges pertaining to the protection of LGBT persons in time of war.

All Survivors Project. The Health of Male and LGBT Survivors of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence.
Kiss L, Quinlan-Davidson M, Ollé Tejero P, Pasquero L, Hogg C, Zimmerman C., 2020
Conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) against women and girls has received increasing attention globally. At the same time, less is known about men, boys and LGBT persons who suffer CRSV. Research estimates that, in some context, the magnitude of CRSV against men and boys is extremely high, with prevalence rates ranging from 32.6% in Liberia to 21% in Sri Lanka. The health and social consequences of CRSV for the lives of men, boys and LGBT persons are severe and long-lasting. CRSV against men, boys and LGBT persons is largely motivated by gendered expression of domination and control. Despite the severe health and social burden associated with CRSV, evidence on interventions addressing the health and wellbeing of male and LGBT survivors of CRSV remains scarce, and limited resources and support are available to target their needs. This report addresses these gaps by summarising and expanding on key findings from a forthcoming realist review by the authors on health interventions for men, boys and LGBT survivors of CRSV.

Sexual Violence Against Men, Trans Women in Syria Conflict
Brian Stauffer for Human Rights Watch, 2020
Syrian state and non-state actors have subjected men, boys, transgender women, and nonbinary people to sexual violence during the Syrian conflict, resulting in severe physical and mental health consequences which are compounded by a lack of support services in Lebanon.
In 2013, the UN Security Council for the first time stated in Security Council Resolution 2106 that conflict-related sexual violence also affects men and boys

Including all victims of sexual violence
Hinck, J. for SwissPeace, 2019
One of the main goals of Resolution 1325 is to protect women and girls from sexual violence in conflict-ridden regions. It also provides a basis for prosecuting sexual violence in wars. Using the terms “women” and “girls” excludes other people and constitutes a binary understanding of gender (separation into men and women). It is therefore high time to define the term “gender” in exact terms in Resolution 1325 and its related documents, and to make sure that it includes everyone. This can ensure that all suffering is recognized and all victims are included in peace processes.

An important aspect of protecting children’s rights is to pay attention to gender specific vulnerabilities of girls and boys, from childhood throughout adolescence. Forms of violence that are being perpetrated against children and adolescents include sexual abuse and exploitation, gender-based violence in emergencies, sexual and gender-based violence in education, child marriage, children’s access to justice, peacebuilding and female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) (Unicef, 2017). The following papers look into conceptual frameworks, practices and theories of change within the field of children and gender-based violence, as well as how child marriage, a core development and human rights issue, hinders the achievement of various sustainable development goals.

Children and Gender-based Violence: An overview of existing conceptual frameworks 
Save the Children 2007
Talking about child rights in general is not enough to safeguard each group of this population, and to make them visible. Gender specific vulnerabilities or obstacles to achieving these rights for girls and boys must also be identified. To address the global prevalence of violence, the United Nations is preparing a global study in which Save the Children Alliance and the Gender Task Group will have an opportunity to contribute. This is the background within which this paper explores existing conceptual frameworks to understand gender-based violence against children.

Caring for Child Survivors of Sexual Abuse Guidelines for health and psychosocial service providers in humanitarian settings
UNICEF and International Rescue Committee 2012
This guideline was developed to respond to the gap in global guidance for health and psychosocial staff providing care and treatment to child survivors of sexual abuse in a humanitarian setting. The CCS Guidelines are based on global research and evidenced-based field practice and bring a much-needed fresh and practical approach to helping child survivors, and their families, recover and heal from the oftentimes devastating impacts of sexual abuse.

Caring for child survivors of sexual abuse Training Users Guide
UNICEF and International Rescue Committee 2015
In addition to the Caring for Child Survivor Guidelines, training materials have been developed to support staff in carrying out training on the content of the guidelines.  The training materials are broken down by topical modules that follow the outline of the CCS Guidelines.  Each module includes a PowerPoint presentation and a Facilitators’ Guide outlining the training content, methodology and materials required to deliver the module.  Supplementary handouts are provided in modules when relevant. The training package also includes a sample agenda, evaluation tools (e.g. pre/post tests and a workshop evaluation), and a Users’ Guide which summarizes how the training materials should be used.

SGBV Prevention and Response
UNHCR 2016
The Training Package is designed to help facilitators deliver introductory, interactive training on the prevention of and response to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Facilitators should have field-experience working on SGBV prevention and response, mainstreaming gender equality, working with communities affected by displacement, and be familiar with UNHCR’s approach to addressing SGBV.
MODULE 9: CHILDREN AND SGBV  In this training session participants explore the types of SGBV inflicted upon children, the causes and contributing factors, and the specific needs of child survivors. The module seeks to make participants aware of the specific considerations regarding children and SGBV and, based on these, explore steps UNHCR can take to ensure SGBV response programmes are inclusive of boys and girls of different ages.

Guidelines for Integrating Gender-Based Violence Interventions in Humanitarian Action
IASC 2015
This Thematic Area Guide (TAG) on child protection and gender-based violence is a portable tool that provides practical guidance for child protection professionals working to prevent and mitigate gender-based violence in humanitarian settings.

How ending child marriage is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals 
The Global Partnership To End Child Marriage 2017
A lack of attention to child marriage undermined the achievement of six of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) between 2000 to 2015. Since then, the international community has learned a lot. We have learned that child marriage is a core development and human rights issue, which hinders the achievement of many other development goals. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – which define global development priorities between now and 2030 – include target 5.3, ‘Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilations’ (under Goal 5 ‘Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls).

Some useful links to organizations distributing information and working with survivors of GBV.

World Health Organization – GBV

Virtual Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls 
UN Women – United Nations Development Fund for Women in collaboration with experts in the field

The United Nations Refugee Agency

Addressing sexual violence

Mental Health & Psychosocial Network MHPSS 
Sharing resources and building knowledge related to mental health and psychosocial support in emergency settings and in situations of adversity.

UNiTE to End Violence against Women 
United Nations Secretary-General´s Campaigne

United Nations Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality – IANWGE

United Nations Population Fund- Gender – GBV

Global Protection Clusters – GBV
The Gender-Based Violence Area of Responsibility (GBV AoR) is the global level forum for coordinating prevention and response to GBV in humanitarian settings. The group brings together NGOs, UN agencies, academics and others under the shared objectives of ensuring more predictable, accountable and effective approaches to GBV prevention and response.

Network about Gender-based Violence
The Network is a platform for meeting of ideas, commitment and execution of objectives of varying organizations and institutions in the public and non-state sectors working on gender-based violence. It seeks to promote closer and strategic partnerships for joint programming, implementation and resource mobilization.

Women`s international league for Peace and freedom
The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)’s mission is to achieve feminist peace for equality, justice and demilitarised security.

Network about preventing GBV in Africa
We are a vibrant network of activists and organizations working to prevent violence against women (VAW), united in our mission to uphold equality in our homes and communities. The Network is over 500 members strong, working in 18 different countries in the Horn, East and Southern Africa to build a just and violence-free world for women.

Women Peace Security
A NGO working group on Women, Peace and Security

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
UNODC on trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants

Center for Health and Gender Equity
The mission of CHANGE is to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights as a means to achieve gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls by shaping public discourse, elevating women’s voices, and influencing the United States Government.

International Rescue Committee – GBV Responders` network
We advocate for and protect the rights of women and girls while cultivating conditions in which women and girls can recover from violence and thrive.

Womenaid International Caucasus
Is the recognised local partner organisation of WomenAid International, a UK based humanitarian aid and development agency that actively campaigns for human rights and the well-being of vulnerable groups. 

Interagency Gender Working Group
A network comprising nongovernmental organizations, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), cooperating agencies, and the Bureau for Global Health of USAID.

IRIN Humanitarian News and Analysis Service
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

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