Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

PTSD, can be brought about or initiated by psychological or physical trauma, often a mix of both. It can stem from different experiences such as war, violence, abuse, or disasters, and its symptoms encompass flashbacks, avoidance, increased arousal, depression, and anxiety. For some individuals, the effects may be intense, leading to severe symptoms or the development of complex PTSD.

02.08 2018

Scroll down for more content:
– What are we talking about – definition of PTSD and symptoms
– Guidelines and manuals
– How is PTSD measured – assessments
– Treatments and approaches to PTSD
– Other aspects of PTSD
– Organisations and sites

What are we talking about – definition of PTSD and symptoms

The most typical symptoms for PTSD are re-experiencing the original trauma through flash-backs and nightmares, avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, increased arousal (as irritation, anger, sleep-disorders), depression and anxiety.

Post-traumatic stress disorder. Clinical Review

2007BMJ British Medical Journal, Jonathan I Bisson,

This article provides an overview of understanding of the disorder, origin and developing, and therapeutic aspects. Scientific approach, target group: therapists.

DSM-IV criteria for PTSD-diagnosis

2022American Psychiatric Association

The DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria for diagnosing PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) were established by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). The DSM-IV was published in 1994 and prov...

ICD-11 criteria for PTSD-diagnosis

2022ICD WHO

ICD-11 (this 11th version was launched in 2022) stands for “International Classification of Diseases”, and is published by the WHO. It`s considered to be the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological, many healt...

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

2023NIMH

A booklet that provides information about Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a mental health condition that can develop after a person experiences a traumatic event. It explains the symptoms of PTSD, how it is diagnosed, who can develop it, risk ...

PTSD in Children and Adolescents

2005Univ.of Illinois/Chicago,

This abstract (16 p.) tries to focus on the challenge to diagnose PTSD correctly, especially in children. Quite theoretical in approach, therefore the target group are specialists in that field.

How PTSD may manifest in children

2006Roy H Lubit, MD, PhD et al.

An overview with some important points concerning the symptoms children may develop after trauma, contrary to adults. Scientific article, target group: specialists in that field.

Trauma and PTSD Overview

US Departments of Veterans Affairs

A detailed Overview of Veterans Affairs research on PTSD, with chapters containing general information about PTSD, as well as about disaster and terrorism, war, and other types of trauma.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence-Based Research...

2005Javier Iribarren et al.

The stress that results from traumatic events precipitates a spectrum of psycho-emotional and physiopathological outcomes. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that results from the experience or witnessing of traumatic or ...

The Linen Cupboard Metaphor – Treatment of Post ...

Psychologytools.org

A good metaphor for why and how to work with PTSD.

The Best Online PTSD Support Groups

HealthLine

First, it’s important to understand that support groups aren’t the same as professional treatment. Formal group therapy is typically run by a mental health professional. Meanwhile, support groups may not be run by a professional. In therapy, you’ll h...

 

Guidelines and manuals

PTSD manuals and guidelines are tools for those aiding people with PTSD, offering clear instructions and practical insights. Their focus is on recognizing and preventing the development of PTSD in the aftermath of traumatic events, facilitating effective interventions and support.

Psychological First Aid Field Operation Guide

National Child Traumatic Stress Network – National Center for PTSD.

Gives guidance on responding to disaster or terrorism events using the Psychological First Aid intervention. This evidence-informed approach helps to assist children, adolescents, adults, and families in the aftermath of disaster and terrorism. The m...

Psychological First Aid Manual (PFA)

2006National Child Traumatic Stress Network and the National Center for PTSD

PFA is an evidence-informed modular approach for assisting people in the immediate aftermath of disaster and terrorism: to reduce initial distress, and to foster short and long-term adaptive functioning. It is for use by mental health specialists inc...

MHHRI psychological first aid and Ukrainian resources

2022Mental Health and Human Rights Info

We have here gathered some of the resources that we have used in our work together with AHALAR, in Ukraine over the last two years. Here you can find the toolbox which is a collection of the tools that contains grounding exercises, metaphors, window ...

Wounded Spirits, Ailing Hearts Training Manual

2000National Center for PTSD,

A manual about PTSD, its symptoms and treatment, with lots of general thoughts, but all over with the very interesting focus on the impact of PTSD on American Indians and Alaska Native (American Veterans). Maybe in some aspects outdated, but quite in...

Post-traumatic stress disorder – the management of PTSD...

2005Clinical Guidelines, NHS National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence,

Here you will find “Presenter slides”, a slide-show which presents an overview about PTSD, symptoms, and some considerations according treatment.

A psychosocial model of healing from the traumas of eth...

2001Marta Cullberg Weston, The women to women Foundation

There is never any question that damaged buildings, roads, power plants, and factories need to be repaired and rebuilt after a war, but the inner destruction in people’s minds is less obvious and is thus often forgotten. Encountering human evil in su...

Broadening perspectives on trauma and recovery: a socio...

2016European Journal of Psychotraumatology

The present paper elaborates and extends the social–interpersonal framework model of PTSD. This was developed to complement other intrapersonally focused models of PTSD, which emphasize alterations in an individual’s memory, cognitions, or neurobiolo...

Children and Adolescents – Guidelines Position Pa...

2019ISTSS

For the past two decades, there has been substantial debate about whether there are qualitatively different symptom profiles that can develop in children from different types of traumatic events and life circumstances. The term “complex trauma” is of...

PTSD Treatment Basics

National Center for PTSD

Most people experience considerable distress and avoidance after being exposed to a severely traumatic experience. This is a normal and adaptive response and often includesreliving the event in thoughts, images, and dreams. This initial reliving of t...

The National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN)

Created in 2000 as part of the Children’s Health Act to raise the standard of care and increase access to services for children and families who experience or witness traumatic events.

 

How is PTSD measured – assessments

After a personal tragedy, it can be challenging to differentiate between normal distress and a more serious condition like PTSD. While most people recover over time, some continue to be profoundly affected. Various instruments, such as clinical interviews and questionnaires, are used for evaluation.

Overview over the most used assessments

2008United States Dep. Of Veteran Affairs, NCPTSD,

The National Center for PTSD provides a catalogue of many assessments used to measure trauma exposure and PTSD. You will find lots of information about the scales and interviews, and the significance of each. You will not find the assessments themsel...

FAQs about PTSD Assessment: For Professionals

2009United States Dep.of Veteran Affairs, NCPTSD,

A fact sheet that provides professionals/therapists with answers about the most common questions about PTSD-assessments.

Psychiatric Rating Scales for PTSD

Neurotransmitter.net

A catalogue of the most used assessments, some as direct links, most of the assessments has to be purchased. Neurotransmitter.net There are lots of assessments available, which should help to diagnose and measure PTSD-symptoms. Only some of these ass...

Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5)

United States Dep.of Veteran Affairs, NCPTSD

The CAPS is the gold standard in PTSD assessment. The CAPS-5 is a 30-item structured interview that can be used to: Make current (past month) diagnosis of PTSD. Make lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. Assess PTSD symptoms over the past week

Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5 (SCID PTSD ...

United States Dep.of Veteran Affairs, NCPTSD

The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 (SCID-5) is a semi-structured interview for making the major DSM-5 diagnoses. The instrument is designed to be administered by a clinician or trained mental health professional.

Modified PTSD Symptom Scale (MPSS-SR) for DSM-III-R

United States Dep.of Veteran Affairs, NCPTSD

The MPSS-SR is a 17-item self-report measure that assesses the 17 DSM-III-R symptoms of PTSD. This scale is a modification of the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993), which was a precursor of the Posttraumatic Stress Dia...

Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD (M-PTSD) for ...

United States Dep.of Veteran Affairs, NCPTSD

The M-PTSD is a 35-item self-report measure that assesses combat-related PTSD in Veteran populations. Items sample DSM-III symptoms of PTSD and frequently observed associated features (substance abuse, suicidality, and depression).

Psychological Testing: Minnesota Multiphasic Personalit...

Mental Health net

The original MMPI was developed in 1939 (Groth Marnat, Handbook of Psychological Assessment, 2009) using an empirical keying approach, which means that the clinical scales were derived by selecting items that were endorsed by patients known to have b...

Trauma Symptom Check-list 40

1989(Briere & Runtz,

TSC is limited to professionals (should not be used as self-test). “The TSC-40 is a research measure that evaluates symptomatology in adults associated with childhood or adult traumatic experiences. It measures aspects of posttraumatic stress and oth...

 

Treatments and approaches to PTSD

Various treatments and approaches for PTSD are available, including psychotherapy, randomized trials focus on cognitive-behavioral and emerging therapeutic modalities, offering individuals a range of options tailored to their unique needs and circumstances.

Efficacy of exposure based cognitive behaviour therapy ...

2018Cambridge Core

Although emergency service personnel experience markedly elevated the rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are no rigorously conducted trials for PTSD in this population. This study assessed the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therap...

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Th...

APA

A structured therapy that encourages the patient to briefly focus on the trauma memory while simultaneously experiencing bilateral stimulation (typically eye movements), which is associated with a reduction in the vividness and emotion associated wit...

Psychological therapies for chronic post‐traumatic stre...

2013NIH

This is an article in “The Cochrane Library”, where the author reviews lots of trials of all psychological treatments considered useful by The Cochrane Collaboration. Target group: clinicians/professionals. 

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: National Clinical Pract...

2015The Royal College of Psychiatrists & The British Psychological Society

This is the complete PTSD-guideline of the “National Institute for Clinical Excellence” / NICE. Great overview, considering all of the importend topics from symptoms, treatment (also regarding children), intervention, recommendations.

Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with ...

2009American Psychiatric Association APA, march

A great overview of current approach and treatment, kind of clinical standard. This represents a so called “guideline-watch”, a supplement to get the original guideline (from 2004) up-to-date. Target group: clinicians

Expert Consensus Guideline Series: Treatment of Posttra...

1999The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol 60

This is a supplement to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, where information about PTSD, recommended approaches and therapy suggestions are collected. Target group: clinicians/professionals. It gives an good overview, which is unfortunately kind of ...

Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Violence and...

National Institute of Mental Health, USA

The purpose of this fact sheet is to tell what is known about the impact of violence and disasters on children and adolescents and suggest steps to minimize long-term emotional harm.

Pharmacotherapy for PTSD

2009DJ Stein, JC Ipser, S Seedat, The Cochrane Library

We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group specialised register (CCDANCTR‐Studies) on 18 August 2005, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library issue 4, 2004), MEDLINE (January 1966 to Dec...

 

Other aspects of PTSD

Articles and publications exploring different aspects of PTSD, including its historical context, sociological impact, and the question of whether it is a disease or a normal reaction to catastrophes.

The invention of post-traumatic stress disorder and the...

2001Derek Summerfield, BMJ/British Mediacl Journal,

This article represents a debate on PTSD with several aspects not often to be seen in a clinical daily routine, with also ethical aspects. Is PTSD always to be seen as a disease? Which impact do sociopolitical and medical aspects have on setting a di...

The relationship between nightmares and PTSD: The possi...

2013Sander Krewinkel

One of the most common and distressing symptoms of PTSD are nightmares, which occur in 50 – 70% of PTSD patients. It is suggested that sleep problems are a core feature of PTSD, and that they form a risk factor in PTSD development. Despite the high p...

PTSD and Nightmares

2019Department of Veterans Affairs

The scientific community has made major strides in recent years to untangle PTSD, a mental health condition that can trigger flashbacks to a traumatic event or cause one to feel distant and angry. Advancements have been made to understand the reasons...

Correlates and Treatments of Nightmares in Adults

2009 Brant Hasler and Anne Germain

Nightmares, distressing dreams that primarily arise from REM sleep, are prevalent among the general population and even more so among clinical populations. The frequency of nightmares and related nightmare distress are linked to both sleep disturbanc...

What Dreams May Come: Treating the Nightmares of PTSD

2013Shaili Jain

A standard part of any psychiatric evaluation involves inquiring about a patient’s sleep. Hidden in the answers that follow the basic question of, “How are you sleeping?” are the clues that are needed to diagnose what is ailing the patient seeking he...

Conflict Transformation. Civil Conflict Management

2010Berghof Conflict Research,

On this website we find an overview of recent developments in the field of conflict transformation from various perspectives: from academic analysts and practitioners as well as from experts representing different areas of work inside and outside of ...

Usefulness and validity of post-traumatic stress disord...

2001Gillian Mezey, Ian Robbins BMJ,

Good overview (although some years old and may be therefore in some aspects outdated) on some aspects of the diagnosis of PTSD as a psychiatric diagnosis. Highlights social aspects, the validity of the diagnosis, causes, effects as well as biochemica...

Planning needs and services after collective trauma: sh...

CarmeloVazquez & Pau Perez-Salesi, 2007

The incidence of PTSD After the Madrid March 11, 2004 terrorist attacks, ranged from what can be expected as a normal prevalence in general population in Spain under non-traumatic conditions to values that, when applied to the general population, cou...

Shell Shock during World War One

2009 Prof. Joanna Bourke,

This represents an overview by the BBC on “Shell Shock”, here in World War I, the historical development of the term, symptoms, treatment at that time. – BBC World Wars in-depth,

 

Organisations and sites

Organisations and sites distributing information on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (IST...

The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) the world’s premier trauma organization dedicated to trauma treatment, education, research and prevention. Through this organization, professionals share information about the effec...

European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS)

The European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, established in 1993, is the European network for professionals in the field of psychotraumatology.

Queensland Program of Assistance for Survivors of Tortu...

QPASTT aims to provide services which address the range of physical, psychological and social needs of refugee survivors of torture and trauma. We offer access to experienced professional staff who are qualified in psychology, social work and other h...

Online PTSD Helpline

It can be difficult to pick up the phone and ask for help, but calling a PTSD hotline number is a free and easy way to speak with someone who is knowledgeable about PTSD and the treatment options available.

The Sidran Institute

The Sidran Institute (USA), a leader in traumatic stress education and advocacy, is a nationally-focused nonprofit organization devoted to helping people who have experienced traumatic life events.

National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

The National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was created within the U.S Department of Veterans Affairs in 1989, in response to a Congressional mandate to address the needs of veterans with military-related PTSD.

Understanding Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Dr. Bruce G. Fagel have collected useful links on how to understand PTSD.

PTSD Online Resource Center

A good collection of useful links related to PTSD.

AsianSTSS

AsianSTSS was founded for professionals to advance knowledge about the nature and consequences of highly stressful events and to provide a forum for the sharing of research, clinical strategies, public policy concerns and theoretical formulations on ...

Phoenix Australia Centre for Posttraumatic Mental Healt...

Promotes recovery for the 15 million Australians affected by trauma. We do this by working with individuals, organisations and the community to understand, prevent, and recover from the potential adverse effects of trauma. Phoenix Australia is an ind...

The Israel Center for the Treatment of Psychotrauma

Information about PTSD, trauma, research about the topic.

The Community Stress Prevention Center

The Community Stress Prevention Centre (CSPC)in Israel was founded in Kiryat Shmona in 1981 with the aim of giving support to the population of the northern border (children, adults, education system, municipality, welfare, health and psychological s...

David Baldwin’s Trauma Information Pages

These Trauma Pages focus primarily on emotional trauma, traumatic stress and PTSD – following both individual traumatic experience and a large-scale disaster. It provides information for clinicians and researches. It`s represents a huge collection of...

A Guide to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

REmilitary

A site for military personnel and others, with a list of facts and resources for patients and their family members who are coping with PTSD, as well as medical professionals assisting with the care and treatment of PTSD patients.